Gerzean Culture

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gerzean Culture

 

an Aeneolithic culture of predynastic Egypt (fourth millennium B.C.). Named after the burial ground of Gerzeh in Lower Egypt, it is represented by settlements and burial grounds. The culture is a development of the earlier Amratian culture. In addition to stone implements, bronze was used to make adzes, daggers, and other tools in the Gerzean culture’s later stage. Along with agriculture (artificial irrigation was used, a primitive plow appeared at the end of the fourth millennium B.C.), stockraising began to develop intensively, which led to property differentiation of tribes and subsequently to class stratification. Handicrafts were greatly developed. Along with burnished red vessels, there appeared ceramics with yellow engobe and red painted decorations, portraying people, animals, boats, and whole scenes. Among the statuettes of clay and stone are representations of women and captives with bound hands. In the period of the Gerzean culture, Upper and Lower Egypt represented two large feuding groups. The influence of the neighboring cultures of Asia Minor and the Tigris and Euphrates (reflected in the art monuments) strengthened. The ancient Egyptian state arose on the basis of the Gerzean culture circa 3200 B.C.

REFERENCES

Piotrovskii, B. B. “Sovremennoe sostoianie izucheniia dodinasticheskogo Egipta.” Problemy istorii dokapitalisticheskikh obshchestv, 1934, nos. 7-8.
Childe, G. Drevneishii Vostok v svete novykh raskopok. Moscow, 1956. Page 108. (Translated from English.)

B. B. PIOTROVSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
FILE - Fayoum's Wadi El Rayan - Wikimedia Commons/Asmaa Tawfiq CAIRO -- 23 May 2019: The director of the Fayoum antiquities authority said that a mission from the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology (EFEO) will carry out excavation work in Fayoum's Gerzeh in June for the third season in a row.
Analyses of three of nine presumably iron beads from Egypt's Gerzeh cemetery found traces of nickel, cobalt, phosphorus and germanium, elements characteristic of meteorites containing iron.
A light-colored bead discovered at Gerzeh, which bears no signs of chemical treatment, retains a crystal structure typical of meteorite iron, Johnson and her colleagues reported in the June Meteoritics & Planetary Science.
The beaded jewellery was originally discovered in two burial sites in Gerzeh, northern Egypt, by British archaeologists before the First World War, and are today stored at University College London's Petrie Museum.
The tubeA[degrees]shaped bead was found at the Gerzeh cemetery, near Cairo, and is from between 3350 and 3600BC.
The tube-shaped bead was found in 1911 at the Gerzeh cemetery, near Cairo, and is from between 3350 B.C.
The proof comes from strings of iron beads which were excavated in 1911 at the Gerzeh cemetery, a burial site approximately 70km south of Cairo.
Using scanning electron microscopes and CT scans, scientists have found that iron beads discovered inside grave pits in the Gerzeh cemetery are made out of meteorite metal.