Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

the German sociologist TÖNNIES’ (1887) twin IDEAL-TYPE concepts referring to contrasting types of social relationship and, by extension, types of society. Gemeinschaft (usually translated as ‘community’) refers to relationships which are spontaneous and ‘affective’, tend to be related to a person's overall social status, are repeated or long-enduring (as in relationships with kin), and occur in a context involving cultural homogeneity. Characteristically, these are the relationships within families and within simpler, small-scale and premodern societies, including peasant societies. Gesellschaft (usually translated as ‘association’) refers to relationships which are individualistic, impersonal, competitive, calculative and contractual, often employing explicit conceptions of rationality and efficiency. Relationships of this type are characteristic of modern urban industrial societies in which the DIVISION OF LABOUR is advanced. For Tönnies, such relationships involved a loss of the naturalness and mutuality of earlier Gemeinschaft relationships. See also COMMUNITY.

Tönnies derived aspects of his concept from Henry MAINE's distinction between status and contract. Compare also Max Weber's TYPES OF SOCIAL ACTION, Talcott Parsons’ PATTERN VARIABLES and Emile Durkheim's MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY. See also Herbert Spencer (MILITANT AND INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY) and Robert Redfield (RURAL-URBAN CONTINUUM).

References in periodicals archive ?
Ob und wie Universitaten eine nachhaltige Gesellschaft fordern konnen, wird kontrovers diskutiert (Fischer et al.
Oestreich + Partner GmbH, Gesellschaft fA1/4r angewandte Statistik + Datenanalyse
Furthermore, the deal, along with the group's acquisition of German real estate technical consulting firm Valteq Gesellschaft mbH, substantially strengthens CBRE's building consultancy portfolio, Michael Strong, executive chairman of Europe, Middle East and Africa, has also said.
TUSDEC trained a pool of 125 solar technicians under GIZ FIT (Funds for Innovative Training) initiative of TVET Reform Support Programme, which is co-funded by the European Union, the Embassy of Netherlands and the Germany and implemented through Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH in collaboration with National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC).
4, movements 2 and 4; and the chorus Das Lob der Musik composed by Antonio Salieri for, and performed at, a Gesellschaft concert in 1818 by principals from the Vienna Philharmonic and a representation of the Singverein.
Her theory is based on concepts developed by the 19th-century German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, who distinguished between two social systems: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Peter Wriggers, President of the Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Mathematik and Mechanik (GAMM).
The earliest and most important of these societies was the Deutsche Gesellschaft at Leipzig.
Extended across two Berlin venues, a major retrospective, "Interrupted Careers: Hannah Wilke," will examine the artist's sculptural, video, and photographic output, including documentation of her 1970s nude performances and her moving record of her own death from cancer (Neue Gesellschaft fur Bildende Kunst and Haus am Kleistpark, Sept.
If the three institutes discussed above have extended the scope of their investigations to the entire early modern period, the Willibald Pirckheimer Gesellschaft, along with the Wolfenbutteler Arbeitskreis fur Renaissance-Forschung, keeps aloft the flag of Renaissance and humanist research.
The award was presented by the Goettinger Chemische Gesellschaft Museum der Chemie on July 24, 1999.
It is doubtful, however, that any will surpass the methodological sophistication and careful research of Bildungschancen und soziale Mobilitat in der stadtischen Gesellschaft des 19.
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