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(gas absorbers), substances with a high absorption capacity for oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other gases, except inert gases. The gas absorption is determined by the chemical activity of the substances when they react with the gases, as well as by their ability to dissolve them (absorption) or to hold them on the surface (adsorption). Getters are usually used in vacuum devices to absorb gases and vapors that remain after evacuation or are liberated during operation. In devices filled with inert gases they are used to remove impurities, and they are also used in vacuum pumps as the working medium. So-called vaporizing and nonvaporizing getters are used.

Vaporizing getters bind gases both when they evaporate and when they precipitate on the walls of the device, forming a metal mirror. The main vaporizing getters arefeba (barium wire in an iron envelope) and bato (a mixture of thorium and

Table 1. Main characteristics of getters
 DegassingTemperature (° C) Gas absorptionSputteringUse
Feba ...............750-800not over 200900-1000Radio oscillator tubes of low and medium power; receiving amplifier tubes
Bato and batalum ...............600-700not over 200900-1300Cathode-ray tubes, miniature radio tubes, and medium-size oscillator tubes
Tseto ...............800-900200-600Tubes in which the use of sputtering gas absorbers is impossible
Thorium ...............800-1100 (on a metal base) 1500-1600 (on a graphite base)400-500Super-high frequency tubes, medium-power oscillator tubes
Zirconium ...............700-1300 (to 1700 for wire)800 (to 1600 for wire)High- and medium-power oscillator tubes; ultrashortwave devices
Tantalum ...............1600-2000700-1200Radio oscillator tubes of medium size; powerful vacuum and radio oscillator tubes
Phosphorus ...............100-200200Incandescent lamps
Aluminum-magnesium ...............400adsorb gases only at moment of sputtering450-500Small radio receiving tubes; tubes with an oxide cathode
Titanium ...............from 20 to 1961300-2000Sorption and getter-ion pumps

iron oxide with a barium-aluminum alloy). Nonvapòrizing getters, batalum (a mixture of barium and strontium carbonates), are usually applied as finely dispersed metallic powders to the surfaces of parts of devices or are used to make an entire part. In the nonvaporizing getters the active substances are tantalum, titanium, zirconium, barium, cerium, lanthanum and niobium, and tseto (mixed cerium, thorium, and lanthanum powders). The main properties of getters are given in Table 1.


Lebedinskii, M. A. Elektrovakuumnye materialy. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Kohl, W. Tekhnologiia materialov dlia elektrovakuumnykh priborov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1957. (Translated from English.)


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Getters are characterized by their chemical affinity for different gases and by the diffusivity of each chemisorbed species into the bulk of the getter material.
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Deposited film getters are the more common of the two.