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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hence, the colour and tone of ghazal, the most popular genre of Urdu poetry, is somewhat determined what is in its roots: love, cry and gloom.
Renowned Ghazal maestro, Hamid Ali Khan, eminent national poets, Amjad Islam Amjad, Dr Sogra Sadaf, Professor Sahar Ansari, Kiswar Naheed, Farhat Abbas, Professor Darwaish Durrani, Dr Inamul Haq Javeed, Syed Wasi Shah, Pir Muhammad Karwan, Dr Nazir Tabsum, Professors Abassen Yousafzai, Nasir Ali Syed and others would perform on the occasion.
Shakeeb Jalali had a unique way of poetry, who gave an innovative tone to Urdu ghazal undoubtedly.
He is often remembered as the 'Shahenshah-e-Ghazal', which means king of ghazal in Urdu.
The amazing Ghazal singer landed his first melodic execution on Radio Pakistan in 1957, fundamentally as a thumri singer, which earned him acknowledgment inside the music world.
According to many, the late singer was the true king of ghazal and no one can ever replace him.
Commenting on this development, Saoud Al Shamsi, Acting Chief Commercial Officer at Abu Dhabi Airports, said: "Al Ghazal Golf Club and Sports will be the most luxurious and exciting resort for sport lovers and families seeking an adventurous escape, or to unwind after a long day of work.
Bahr el Ghazal students protesting at the UN main Gate in Wau, March 12, 2014 (ST)
Shadab Zeest Hashmi's work is an in-depth analysis of the contemporary iteration of the ghazal form of poetry (see WLT, May 2017, 22-26).
Three Egyptian players are competing with their teams in the MLS this season: Omar Gaber, Aly Ghazal and Amro Tarek.
Junii Zeyad, who likes to call himself "singer/artist/entrepreneur", recently released his first single, Sharab Cheez Hi Aisi Hai , which is a cover of the famous ghazal originally performed by Indian singer Pankaj Udhas.