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a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
Shadab Zeest Hashmi's work is an in-depth analysis of the contemporary iteration of the ghazal form of poetry (see WLT, May 2017, 22-26).
Zeyad reportedly got the rights to the song from Media Concepts, the official licensee of Universal Music, and gave the ghazal a pop spin.
Founder of Lok Virsa Islamabad and famous writer, Aksai Mufti who attended the event paid tribute to Chief Secretary KP, Azam Khan and Tourism Corporation for arranging a Ghazal Night in Peshawar.
He wished the organisers and the provincial government luck on reviving the cultural activities and appreciated the initiative of holding a ghazal night.
I feel like I'm at home," Ghazal, who owns an advertising, media and marketing company, told The Daily Star.
The marriage proposal came under discussion on next morning again among the family members of Ghazal Naz.
Tabla maestro and Padma Bhushan Ustad Zakir Hussain with Padma Shri Hariharan are all set to enthral the ghazal fans with their music on December 8 at the Qatar National Convention Center (QNCC).
In response to the threat, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in Greater Bahr el Ghazal region evacuated nearly 100 aid workers who hail from tribes of Greater Equatoria region and were airlifted out of Bahr el Ghazal region, United Nations has confirmed.
True to its Tradition of providing quality entertainment to the People of KP, the Pearl Continental organized the Ghazal Night in, with internationally acclaimed Munni Begum.
Being there and meeting all the different people from different parts of the world and different religions and seeing all this positive energy and how everyone just loved everyone, that was enough energy to make me come back with a positive mindset," says Ghazal.
The old low-rise beachfront house of Mostafa Ghazal and his family in Alexandria is just 20 metres away from new machinery installed by the nearby cement factory.
THEY might seem different on the surface but as singer Rashmi Agarwal explains, ghazal and jazz do have a common ground.