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a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
I feel really honoured whenever music buffs speak about the impact my singing has had in attracting them to the ghazals," he said.
Zubair has set records by publishing 1001 ghazals in one book and 31 books in one year, 2010.
Out of 30 'classical Ghazal singers' just three or four are recognised ghazal singers while others didn't even know what is ghazal, details and forms, raags, and compositions of ghazals," he said adding he wondered how this mega selection from all over the country the PNCA has made.
A BAHRAIN-based youngster will perform as an opening act for a leading Indian ghazal singer at a concert at the Indian Club, Manama, tomorrow night.
This book "Nairang-e-Ghazal" contains three big eras of Urdu Ghazal, first the Classics from Wali Dakani to Momin Khan Momin, second from Shaifta to Hafeez Jallendhary and the last one from Baqi Siddiqi to Ahmad Faraz.
DOHA PAKISTANI ghazal singer Javed Khan Meer enthralled the audience with his performance at a concert titled Sham-e-Ghazal organised by Punjab Musical Group at Deccan Auditorium, in Doha, recently.
Sani performed at the Coke Studio to make young people aware of the original beauty of ghazal renditions.
Manmohan Singh, has expressed deep grief over the passing away of noted ghazal singer Mehdi Hassan.
Singh, dubbed "The Ghazal King", had been in intensive care for three weeks after undergoing surgery when he fell seriously ill with a brain haemorrhage.
Umbaee will sing famous Hindustani Ghazals along with the selected Malayalam Ghazals written by highly popular Malayalam poets including O N V Kurup and Sachidandan.
Later, Sara Raza, Babar Niazi, Javed Niazi, Ali Raza, Muhammad Ali, Nadeem Abbas Loonewala, Asid Mehdi, Humaira Channa and Ghulam Abbas sung classical ghazals sung by Mehdi Hassan.
Summary: I grew up in a household with a constant background score of ghazals in place.