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a monorhymed lyrical poem, consisting usually of five to 12 bayt couplets; common in the poetry of the Near and Middle East and in Southeast Asia. As a genre, the ghazal developed from popular lyrical song, probably in the seventh century, and took its final shape in the 13th and 14th centuries. Only the second misra (hemistich) rhymes, except in the first bayt (matla) in which both misras rhyme. The rhyming pattern is aa, ba, ca, da. In the last bayt (maqta) the tahallus (pseudonym of the author) must be mentioned. As a rule, every bayt of the ghazal contains a completed thought with a self-contained meaning. Outstanding Persian and Tadjik poets (such as Saadi, Hafiz, Kamal, and later Jami), as well as Uzbek (Alisher Navoi) and Azerbaijani (Nizami) poets, have composed classical examples of the ghazal. Certain European poets who turned to Oriental themes used the ghazal form, including Goethe, Bodenstedt, and, in Russia, V. Briusov.


Bertel’s, E. E. Persidskaia poeziia v Bukhare v X veke. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Braginskii, I. S. “O vozniknovenii gazeli v tadzhikskoi i persidskoi literature.” Sovetskoe vostokovedenie, 1958, no. 2.
Mirzoev, A. M. Rudaki i razvitie gazeli v X-XV vv. Stalinabad, 1958.




(Bahr al-Ghazal), a river in the southwestern Sudan, a left tributary of the White Nile. The Bahr al-Ghazal is formed by the confluence of the Bahr al-Arab and the Jur River at the town of Ghabat al-Arab. Measured from the place of confluence, it is approximately 240 km long. It flows through vast swamps. Düring the summer rains navigation is possible up to the town of Waw on the Jur River. After the water level falls, the Bahr al-Ghazal is navigable from the place of confluence of its headstreams.

References in periodicals archive ?
Singer Papon, who is trying to bring back the glory of ghazals among young listeners, says if presented in a contemporary way, the youth is ready to enjoy the genre.
He was last seen singing Majeed Amjad' ghazal jo din kabhi nahi beeta for Sachal Studios.
She presented her famous Ghazals including Aik Bar Muskura do, Jhoom Barabar, Awargi se Had Se and many more that were unforgettable and also a moment of enjoyment for Peshawarites.
Ghazals are mostly made out of poetry and poets should be credited for it as they have contributed to Indian Classical music with their poetry and ballads.
In fact, the American ghazals "birth" as a poetic form actually coincided with the centenary of Ghalib's death as Aijaz Ahmed began the ghazal-translation project (ahead of Ghalibs death-centenary in 1969) involving Adrienne Rich, W S.
True to its Tradition of providing quality entertainment to the People of KP, the Pearl Continental organized the Ghazal Night in, with internationally acclaimed Munni Begum.
was a legend who had earned name in singing Ghazals during his 40 years services in the field of music.
Ghazal singer Talat Aziz's latest single ' Wo Sham' is all about unrequited love.
Part of what makes Faiz not only a difficult figure to translate, but a controversial figure to boot, is that he takes stock imagery from the golden-age Persian ghazals of Hafiz and Rumi and recuperates them to be explicitly political.
The album is a sublime musical meeting between Gwyneth Glyn from Criccieth, one of Wales' leading singersongwriters, and the acclaimed ghazal singer-musician Tauseef Akhtar from Mumbai, India.
Hashmi even rendered two ghazals from the days of yore in his own voice.
In his life time, Jagjit enthralled music connoisseurs the world over with his mellifluous ghazals and rendition of popular songs for Bollywood.