When the furious Henry tore down the city walls and fortress towers of refractory Cremona in 1311, he effectively forfeited his promise of peaceable impartiality and disclosed his Ghibelline
As Pintoin explains, the Duke of Milan intrigued with the Genoans, pretending to support the King of France's claim while all the time stirring up Guelf and Ghibelline
animosities to create an obstacle to the French's attempts to establish authority over the city.
When Dante encounters Farinata degli Uberti, the Ghibelline
nobleman greets him "almost in disdain" by asking, "Who were your ancestors?
That same poem also contains something else I told him: that the way to tell Guelph from Ghibelline
battlements is by the shape of their crenelations.
Amidst intense papal-imperial power struggles in northern-Italian cities, Peter's career was deeply conditioned by the burgeoning papal offensive against Catharism (often enmeshed with Ghibelline
politics), and by the supportive role the young Dominican Order developed in it.
Farinata was a Ghibelline
, leader of the Florentines in the victory at Montaperti (note to myself: look up Montaperti).
It was the classic smaller emperor-allied Ghibelline
city versus a larger papal-allied Guelf city--a situation that encouraged violence throughout Italy in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries as the unity of the Holy Roman Empire was beginning to crack.
Indeed Antonio Ivan Pini called Bologna a "Republic of notaries" during the rule of the popolo in the 1270s and 1280s when one of their own, Rolandino Passagieri, a doctor of notarial arts, led the dominant Guelf faction and spearheaded the exile of the Ghibelline
faction lead by the Lambertazzi.
The depredations of exiles on the fringes of Florentine territory--acts barely distinguishable from banditry--kept the illusion of Ghibelline
Castruccio, on the other hand, is exiled with his Ghibelline
family from his homeland as a child, and schooled in the arts of war and political intrigue.
But Pope Alexander IV excommunicated the entire city for its Ghibelline
German writer Ghibelline
caused a sensation with his 2003 biography of Johann Goethe (1749-1832), and here continues his contention that the German writer's love interest was not Charlotte von Stein at all, but her mistress the Dowager Duchess Anna Amali.