Ghibellines

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Ghibellines:

see Guelphs and GhibellinesGuelphs and Ghibellines
, opposing political factions in Germany and in Italy during the later Middle Ages. The names were used to designate the papal (Guelph) party and the imperial (Ghibelline) party during the long struggle between popes and emperors, and they were also used
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; HohenstaufenHohenstaufen
, German princely family, whose name is derived from the castle of Staufen built in 1077 by a Swabian count, Frederick. In 1079, Frederick married Agnes, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, and was created duke of Swabia.
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References in periodicals archive ?
When the furious Henry tore down the city walls and fortress towers of refractory Cremona in 1311, he effectively forfeited his promise of peaceable impartiality and disclosed his Ghibelline partisanship.
As Pintoin explains, the Duke of Milan intrigued with the Genoans, pretending to support the King of France's claim while all the time stirring up Guelf and Ghibelline animosities to create an obstacle to the French's attempts to establish authority over the city.
When Dante encounters Farinata degli Uberti, the Ghibelline nobleman greets him "almost in disdain" by asking, "Who were your ancestors?
That same poem also contains something else I told him: that the way to tell Guelph from Ghibelline battlements is by the shape of their crenelations.
Amidst intense papal-imperial power struggles in northern-Italian cities, Peter's career was deeply conditioned by the burgeoning papal offensive against Catharism (often enmeshed with Ghibelline politics), and by the supportive role the young Dominican Order developed in it.
Farinata was a Ghibelline, leader of the Florentines in the victory at Montaperti (note to myself: look up Montaperti).
It was the classic smaller emperor-allied Ghibelline city versus a larger papal-allied Guelf city--a situation that encouraged violence throughout Italy in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries as the unity of the Holy Roman Empire was beginning to crack.
Indeed Antonio Ivan Pini called Bologna a "Republic of notaries" during the rule of the popolo in the 1270s and 1280s when one of their own, Rolandino Passagieri, a doctor of notarial arts, led the dominant Guelf faction and spearheaded the exile of the Ghibelline faction lead by the Lambertazzi.
The depredations of exiles on the fringes of Florentine territory--acts barely distinguishable from banditry--kept the illusion of Ghibelline threat alive.
Castruccio, on the other hand, is exiled with his Ghibelline family from his homeland as a child, and schooled in the arts of war and political intrigue.
But Pope Alexander IV excommunicated the entire city for its Ghibelline (pro-imperial) policies.
German writer Ghibelline caused a sensation with his 2003 biography of Johann Goethe (1749-1832), and here continues his contention that the German writer's love interest was not Charlotte von Stein at all, but her mistress the Dowager Duchess Anna Amali.