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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Arabic; literally, youth or slave). (1) A slave in Muslim countries during the Middle Ages.

(2)Permanent mounted guard in the Abbasid Caliphate, created under Caliph Mamun (ruled 813–833) and recruited from young slaves, primarily of Turkish origin, who were purchased and brought from abroad. The term ghulam (synonym, Mamluk) was retained for the soldiers of the court guards in other medieval Muslim states.

(3)Rank and file soldiers in the feudal militia in the Ottoman Empire during the Middle Ages.

(4)Guardsmen-slaves of Turkish origin in the Delhi Sultanate (India) and the sultans of Delhi between 1206 and the 1290’s, who came from among the commanders of these guardsmen.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Federal Minister for Aviation Ghulam Sarwar Khan flanked by ANF Deputy Director General Ghulam Qadir Thebo and RAC Director Waqar Ahmed was chief guest at the occasion.
As a result, two youth, Ghulam Hyder Khokhar and Ghulam Hyder Machhi, residents of village Ghous Ali Shah, suffered severe injuries.
Sindh Minister for Human Settlement Ghulam Murtaza Baloch has said that all measures are being taken to provide relief to the people and hopefully these steps will bear fruits soon.
Dera Ghazi Khan -- An anti-terrorism court ATC on Thursday awarded 298 years in prison to three gangsters including notorious Chotu gang ring leader, Ghulam Rasool alias Chotu, for killing two policemen in 2011, media reported.
They said that Ghulam Rasool and his cousin Ghulam Muhammad came under attack by their rivals on busy Michenkhel Adda in Lakki city.
Federal Minister for Aviation Ghulam Sarwar Khan has claimed that several Opposition Senators are in contact with the government.
ISLAMABAD -- Indian police arrested the Chief Spokesman of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC), Ghulam Ahmed Gulzar in Srinagar on Saturday morning.
The deceased have been identified as Ghulam Rasppl, Razia Bibi and Shahida.
Chief Secretary Sindh Syed Mumtaz Ali Shah has assured Sindh Minister for Labour and Human Resources Ghulam Murtaza Baloch that problems faced by district Malir, will be addressed on priority basis.
ISLAMABAD: A legendary folk classical singer Ustad Baray Ghulam Ali Khan's death anniversary was observed here on Wednesday.
ISLAMABAD -- Leader of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) Ghulam Sarwar Khan has accepted Prime Minister Imran Khan's decision to change his ministry on Saturday, after reshuffling to federal cabinet.
The owner of Cafe Pyala, a famous restaurant in Gulberg, in the limits of Taimuria police station, allegedly kidnapped the masseur, Ghulam Ali, who had his shop set up outside the restaurant.