Chapter one, "Discursive Ritual and Sacrificial Presentation: The Rhetoric of Crisis and Resolution in Fascist Italy" (13-48), spans the ventennio analyzing three of Mussolini's speeches: the address to the Chamber of Deputies on 3 January 1925, when he challenged his critics in the wake of Giacomo Matteotti
's assassination; the speech from the balcony of Palazzo Venezia on 16 October 1932, to commemorate Fascism's tenth anniversary; and, the speech to the "Tenth Legion" in Palazzo Venezia's Hall of Battles on 23 September 1939, to reaffirm his authority in the face of impending international crises.
She had been spotted among the spectators at the trial of the Fascists who had murdered Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti
earlier that year.
Gooch shows that Il Duce missed his great opportunity to break the hold of traditionalism around 1924-1925, but he was bogged down by the crisis that ensued after the murder of the Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti
and failed to back his own War minister Antonino Di Giorgio when the latter met resistance from the military hierarchy.
Fuming at how junior Fascists had tortured socialist parliamentarian Giacomo Matteotti
so severely as to induce their victim's fatal heart attack, Mussolini echoed Harding almost to the syllable: "My worst enemies could not have done me as much harm as my friends."
Partington sees this orderliness as a premonition for social critics who threaten that order, as did Giacomo Matteotti
in Italy and Cavor in Wells.
Such an oath implied full acceptance of the crimes perpetrated by Mussolini in order to establish his dictatorship, including the murder of Giacomo Matteotti
Roberto Farinacci and Italo Balbo, to name only two, governed their party branches as more or less independent kingdoms; Farinacci showed what he thought of the Duce by acting as the lawyer for the killers of Socialist parliamentarian Giacomo Matteotti
. Farrell also excels in specifying the threat posed to Fascism by Freemasonry.
Of particular importance were the clashes over the kidnap and murder of the Socialist parliamentary deputy Giacomo Matteotti
in 1924 by a Fascist gang.