Gibbs-Duhem equation


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Gibbs-Duhem equation

[¦gibz ′dü·əm i‚kwā·zhən]
(physical chemistry)
A relation that imposes a condition on the composition variation of the set of chemical potentials of a system of two or more components, where S is entropy, T absolute temperature, P pressure, ni the number of moles of the i th component, and μi is the chemical potential of the i th component. Also known as Duhem's equation.
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The enthalpic contribution is calculated for the whole solid-solvent in the CC carbonized without treatment acid, with values between -0.12 and 2.78 J with an opposite behavior to that of the ion Ni(II) enthalpic contribution in the mixture, complying with the Gibbs-Duhem equation.
Direct Solution of the Isothermal Gibbs-Duhem Equation for Multicomponent Systems.
The graduate textbook covers the Gibbs-Duhem equation, temperature-composition diagrams, configurational entropies, Helmholtz energy minimization, total Gibbs energy, Ellingham diagrams, and analytical representation of thermodynamic properties.
(3) is not consistent with restrictions given by Gibbs-Duhem equation and by Onsager's reciprocity relations.
together with the differential [dg.sup.E] from Equation (3) and the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the form (Sandler, 1999c):
In his first thesis Duhem had shown the usefulness of the concept of thermodynamic potential, and he deduced what is now known as the Gibbs-Duhem equation. In the following years he consolidated his scientific reputation, working on the interaction of electric currents, and the theory of saline solutions as well as making a rigorous analysis of the foundations of thermodynamics.