Gifford, Sanford Robinson

Gifford, Sanford Robinson,

1823–80, American painter, b. Greenfield, N.Y. A major painter of the American movement known as luminismluminism
, American art movement of the 19th cent. Luminism was an outgrowth of the Hudson River school. In its concern for capturing the effects of light and atmosphere it is sometimes linked to impressionism. Its practitioners included Frederick E.
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, Gifford, who was influenced by Thomas ColeCole, Thomas,
1801–48, American landscape painter, b. England. He arrived in the United States in 1818 and moved to Ohio, where he was impressed by the beauty of the countryside. In 1825 he went to New York, where his landscape paintings began to be appreciated.
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 early in his career, was celebrated for his atmospheric landscapes. He grew up in Hudson, N.Y., and more than 150 of his paintings depict a Hudson River or Catskill Mtns. scene, e.g. the luminous A Gorge in the Mountains (Kauterskill Clove) (1862). Gifford traveled extensively in Europe, Egypt, and the far west of the United States. Characteristic of his romantic panoramas is the shimmering Ruins of the Parthenon (1880; Corcoran Gall., Washington, D.C.).


See catalogs of his paintings in two retrospective exhibitions (Metropolitan Mus. of Art, 1881 and 2003).

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