(both: gēlän`), province (1991 pop. 2,204,047), 14,709 sq mi (38,106 sq km), NW Iran, bounded in the N by the Caspian Sea and in the SE by the Elburz Mts. RashtRasht
or Resht
, city (1991 pop. 340,637), capital of Gilan prov., NW Iran, near the Caspian Sea. It is an administrative and trade center for a fertile agricultural region where rice, cotton, silk, and peanuts are produced.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the capital and chief city; other cities include Zanjan and Bandar-e Anzali. Much of the province has a subtropical climate. Fish, caviar, and rice are important products; tobacco, fruit, and tea are also produced. Textiles are manufactured. There is a dam, an airport, and a natural-gas pipeline. Gilan was ruled by the Mongols in the 13th and early 14th cent. and was incorporated into Persia by the Safavid dynasty in the late 16th cent. It was occupied by Russia from 1722 to 1732. In the 19th cent. it was divided among Iran, Great Britain, and Russia. It was (1920–21) a Soviet republic before being returned to Iranian control in 1921.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a historical province in Iran located on the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea and bordered on the south by the Elburz Mountains. Area, approximately 15,000 sq km. Population, 1,754,000 (1966, census).

More than three-quarters of the people are Gilaki. Gilan is part of the region of Gilan. The largest cities are Rasht (144,000 inhabitants in 1966), Pahlavi, and Lahijan. Approximately 1.5 million hectares (ha) are forested. Gilan has deposits of oil and coal and iron and copper ore. The main occupation is agriculture. Irrigated crops on the lowlands include rice (on more than 60 percent of the arable land), kenaf, mulberries, and citrus trees; in the foothills, the basic crops are tea, tobacco, and olives. After the Safid hydroelectric complex began operating in 1964, the area of cultivated land increased by 220,000 ha; in 1961, only about 275,000 ha were cultivated. Gilan’s industries are textiles, food processing (tea and rice polishing), fishing, and handicrafts. Highways and air routes connect the province with all major regions of the country.

In antiquity, the Gel tribe (ancestors of the Gilaki) inhabited Gilan. In the eighth and ninth centuries it was conquered by the Arabs, although the mountainous region, Deilem, remained independent. In the ninth and tenth centuries Islam spread into Gilan. From the tenth to the early 14th centuries, it was governed by semiindependent sovereigns. From 1307 to 1370, Gilan was ruled by the Mongols. From 1370 until the 16th century the independent Seid government ruled the eastern part of Gilan, Lahijan. In the beginning of the 16th century Gilan became part of Iran; before 1592 it had been a vassalage of the Safawids and after 1592 became a domain of the Safawid shahs. In the 16th and 17th centuries there were sporadic anti-Safawid rebellions (1570-71, 1592, and 1629). In 1909, Gilan was one of the major centers of the Iranian Revolution of 1905-11; on June 5, 1920, a republic was proclaimed in one of Gilan’s cities, Rasht. The Gilan Republic existed until Sept. 29, 1921.


Bartol’d, V. Istoriko-geograficheskii obzor Irana. St. Petersburg, 1903. Pages 153-59.
Petrushevskii, I. P. “Narodnoe vosstanie v Giliane v 1629.” Uch. zap. In-ta vostokovedeniia AN SSSR, 1951, vol. 3.
Ivanov, M. S. Noveishaia istoriia Irana. Moscow, 1965. Chapter 2.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Air Forces conducted operations in Gilan and Deh Yak districts of Ghazni province.
On Monday, Director-General of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts of Gilan province Shahroud Amir Entekhabi said that around 26,000 foreign tourists have visited Iran's Northern province of Gilan in the past 5 months of the current Persian-calendar year (March 21- August 22), which shows a 10 percent increase in comparison with the corresponding period in the last year.
"Creating 26,000 jobs in Gilan Province is on the agenda as part of the industry and agriculture sectors' development," he noted.
The ban will not take effect for three years to give farmers time to shift to new crops, but after that rice will only be grown in Gilan and Mazandaran.
ISLAMABAD -- The accountability court Tuesday expressed displeasure with National Accountability Bureau (NAB) for not presenting witnesses in LPG quota reference against former prime minister Yousaf Raza Gilan's adviser Mian Khurram Rasool.
Y Gilan is sat within a large and private garden plot, this individually designed bungalow was built in 1975 and can boast two large reception rooms, a farmhouse style kitchen with Rayburn, wide range of fitted units and plenty of room for a breakfast table.
Gilan's book here under review deals with one of the most debated topics in the field of Hittitology: historiography.
Thirty people were injured by the earthquake in Gilan Province in the north of Iran, authorities said.
4 July 2016 - 14:47 Gilan's standardized exports up by 43% Hojjatollah Talaie told reporters on Monday that over 95 export control licenses have been issued for over 3,278 tons of products worth 159 billion Rials in the first three months of current Iranian year.
Also speaking will be Gilan Cork, the man behind Persuasion Games, former cricketer Jeremy Snape and Lanchester Wines founder Tony Cleary.
Musa Khan Akbarzada told Pajhwok Afghan News the insurgents had planted bombs on roads in Gilan, Maqur, Andar, Giru and highways leading to Ghazni City.