Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry
Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry(Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing) (välārē` zhēskär` dĕstăN`), 1926–2020, French political leader, president of France (1974–81); b. French-occupied Germany. A member of the national assembly at the age of 29, he was deputy finance minister (1959–62) and finance minister (1962–66) in Charles de Gaullede Gaulle, Charles
, 1890–1970, French general and statesman, first president (1959–69) of the Fifth Republic. The World Wars
During World War I de Gaulle served with distinction until his capture in 1916. In The Army of the Future (1934, tr.
..... Click the link for more information. 's government. He held the latter post again in 1969 under President Georges PompidouPompidou, Georges Jean Raymond
, 1911–74. French political leader, president of France (1969–74). Georges Pompidou taught school and then served in World War II until the fall (1940) of France, when he returned to teaching.
..... Click the link for more information. , supporting European economic integration and closer ties with the United States. Leader of the Independent Republicans, a conservative group allied with the Gaullists, he ran for president after Pompidou's death in 1974, defeating Socialist François MitterrandMitterrand, François Maurice
, 1916–96, French political leader, president of France, 1981–95. Initially a supporter of Pétain's Vichy government during World War II, he joined the Resistance in 1943.
..... Click the link for more information. . As president he secured a number of social reforms and continued to advocate for stronger European ties. but was unsuccessful in dealing with inflation and rising unemployment. After losing to Mitterrand in 1981, he returned (1984–89, 1993–97) to the national assembly, playing a major role in unifying France's right wing. Giscard also served in the European Parliament (1989–93) and as president of the Auvergne regional council (1986–2004). In 2001 he was appointed president of the Convention on the Future of Europe, which was charged with drafting a new for the European UnionEuropean Union
(EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the European Community (EC), an economic and political confederation of European nations, and other organizations (with the same member nations)
..... Click the link for more information. ; the draft failed to win EU approval but paved the way for the Lisbon Treaty (ratified 2009).
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