Giulio Romano


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Romano, Giulio:

see Giulio RomanoGiulio Romano
, c.1492–1546, Italian painter, architect, and decorator, whose real name was Giulio Pippi. He was the favorite pupil of Raphael and while still a youth was entrusted with the painting of most of the frescoes in the loggias (from designs by Raphael) and a
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Giulio Romano

(jo͞o`lyō rōmä`nō), c.1492–1546, Italian painter, architect, and decorator, whose real name was Giulio Pippi. He was the favorite pupil of Raphael and while still a youth was entrusted with the painting of most of the frescoes in the loggias (from designs by Raphael) and a group of figures in the Stanza of the Incendio di Borgo in the Vatican and also, together with Gianfrancesco Penni, with the decoration of the ceiling of the Villa Farnesina, all in Rome. After the death of Raphael, he completed the frescoes of the life of Constantine in the Vatican as well as Raphael's Coronation of the Virgin and Transfiguration (both: Vatican Gall.). Forced to flee Rome in 1524 for having designed pornographic prints, he entered the service of the duke of Mantua, for whom he executed paintings and architectural and engineering projects. He reconstructed the cathedral, established a school of art, and designed the nearby Church of San Benedetto. He was the architect of the ducal palace and rebuilt the Palazzo del Te, decorating both of them with celebrated illusionistic and somewhat melodramatic frescoes. In 1546 he was appointed architect to St. Peter's, but he died in the same year. Well-known oils include The Stoning of St. Stephen (Church of Santo Stefano, Genoa) and Adoration of the Kings (Louvre). Romano was one of the creators of mannerism.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Romano, Giulio

 

(real name, Giulio Pippi). Born 1492 or 1499, in Rome; died Nov. 1, 1546, in Mantua. Italian architect and painter.

Romano, a pupil of Raphael, worked in Rome from 1515 to 1524. He and his teacher painted the frescoes in the stanzas and loggias of the Vatican and in the Villa Farnesina. After Raphael’s death, Romano completed the frescoes of the Villa Madama (1521). In 1524 he began working at the court of the Gonzaga dukes in Mantua. Romano gradually moved away from the classical principles of Renaissance art. His architecture is characterized by its accentuated plasticity, whimsical contrasts of forms, and well-developed peculiar rustication (for example, the architect’s own house in Mantua, 1544). These elements are often combined with other unconventional external effects which destroy the strict tectonics of traditional orders (for example, the twisted columns of the Tournament Court in the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua, 1538-39). Romano’s principal work, the Palazzo del Te in Mantua (1525-34), is an early example of the suite method and anticipated architecture’s subsequent development.

Romano’s frescoes are notable for their ponderous architectural design, overcrowded composition, and unorthodox poses and foreshortening (for example, the paintings in the Sala dei Giganti in the Palazzo del Te). A cold abstraction of forms characterizes his paintings (for example, Christmas, Louvre, Paris; and Madonna and Child With John the Baptist, Hermitage, Leningrad).

REFERENCES

Vseobshchaia istoriia arkhitektury, vol. 5. Moscow, 1967. Pages 254-59.
Loukomski, G. Jules Romain. Paris, 1932.

V. E. MARKOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Giulio Romano

?1499--1546, Italian architect and painter; a founder of mannerism
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
On a plate of The Birth of John the Baptist, the dog in the engraving after Giulio Romano, which was its source, is in its turn copied from one in Dtirer's Visitation from the Marienleben.
Perhaps not quite as impressive as the Palazzo Te in Mantua, which Giulio Romano built and decorated for his brother, Federico II, it nonetheless took Rome as its model.
Questa parte del volume e largamente basata sul concetto di "forma disturbata" avanzato da Gombrich (283), nonche su altre categorie artistiche come quella di "rustico dilicato" usata dai Serlio a proposito dei ciclo di Giulio Romano a Palazzo Te o dei "bizzarro" vasariano.
Between 1538 and 1542, the Vicentines asked a series of eminent architects for their advice, including Sebastiano Serlio from Bologna, Giulio Romano from Mantua, Jacopo Sansovino from Venice and Michele Sanmichele from Padua, but none could provide the city with an elegant and affordable solution.
Retorica della diffrazione: Bembo, Aretino, Giulio Romano e Tasso.
The book's most provocative chapter, "The Pornographic Ideal," springs from the puzzling allusion to Giulio Romano toward the end of The Winter's Tale.
Chapter 5, "The Pornographic Ideal," explores some of the issues around the only Renaissance artist Shakespeare actually mentions, the supposed sculptor Giulio Romano, creator of the supposed statue of Hermione in The Winter's Tale, and the book ends with "Imagining Shylock," an essay on how Shakespeare and his audience might have viewed this problematic character.
The one on The Winter's Tale, for example, has a promising beginning, as Orgel starts off from the intriguing fact that the play contains Shakespeare's only reference to an artist roughly from his day, Giulio Romano. But as the title of the chapter--"The Pornographic Ideal"--might have warned us, Orgel seems to bring up Romano chiefly to be able to show some dirty pictures and to use some four-letter words.
The National Gallery's opinion was that they were 16th century Italian, looking jolly like work by a Giulio Romano (1499 to 1546) who led a well-known school of painters in Mantua.
L'esempio raffaellesco produsse una vera e propria scuola e tra gli allievi e d'obbligo ricordarne almeno due: Giulio Romano e Perin del Vaga.