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(both: gē`zə), or

Al Jizah

(äl jē`zö), city (1990 est. pop. 2,680,500), capital of Giza governorate, N Egypt, surburb of Cairo. It is a manufacturing and agricultural trade center. Products include textiles, cigarettes, and apparel. Giza is the seat of government ministries, cultural and research institutes, the Univ. of Cairo, and Egypt's film industry. The area was settled in antiquity. Nearby are the three Great Pyramidspyramid.
The true pyramid exists only in Egypt and Sudan, though the term has also been applied to similar structures in other countries. Egyptian pyramids are square in plan and their triangular sides, which directly face the points of the compass, slope upwards at
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, surrounded by mastabas, with the Great Sphinxsphinx
, mythical beast of ancient Egypt, frequently symbolizing the pharaoh as an incarnation of the sun god Ra. The sphinx was represented in sculpture usually in a recumbent position with the head of a man and the body of a lion, although some were constructed with rams'
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 to the south; it has been a heavily trafficked sightseeing area for centuries.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



or Al Jizah, a city in the Arab Republic of Egypt, in Upper Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, on the Cairo-Aswan railroad. The southwestern suburb of Cairo. Population, 571,200 (1966). It is a major trade (mainly grain) and tourism center. There is some tobacco industry.

Near Giza, in the Libyan Desert, stand the majestic pyramid-tombs of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus). They were built in the first half of the third millennium B.C. and in Hellenistic literature were listed as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The grandest is the pyramid of Khufu, or the Great Pyramid (architect, Heminunu; height, 146.6 m; base length, 233 m). The pyramid of Khafre is 143.5 m high and 215.25 m long at the base. The pyramid of Menkaure is 62 m high and 108.4 m long at the base. A memorial temple was joined to each pyramid on the eastern side and was connected by a passageway to the smallest (lowest) temple in the valley. Near the lowest temple of Khafre’s pyramid is the Great Sphinx, a fantastic being with the body of a lion and a portrait head of the pharaoh, carved out of a cliff (length, 57 m; height, 20 m).

There is also a necropolis in the field of the pyramids, where over 7,000 noble Egyptians from the second to the sixth dynasties are buried. Excavations began in the 19th century. The tombs of Giza have provided rich material for studying the means of production, social life, and culture of Egypt in the time of the Old Kingdom (c. 2800-c. 2250 B.C.). Many tombs revealed objects of the burial cult, household utensils, work tools, and weapons. One tomb contained a set of flint knives, which were used along with bronze knives. Pottery of all kinds and some sculpture were found. Beautiful bas-reliefs with scenes from the lives of the deceased as well as hieroglyphic inscriptions were uncovered in several tombs.


Reisner, G. A. A History of the Giza Necropolis, vols. 1-2. Cambridge-London, 1942-55.
Hassan, S. Excavations at Giza, vols. 1-10. Cairo, 1932-60.
Junker, H. Giza, vols. 1-12. Vienna-Leipzig, 1929-55.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"The medical device industry is boom ing and is rich with small to midsize companies that see tangible financial and compliance benefits to outsourcing their FDA-compliant manufacturing needs," Giza said.
In August 2014, the Giza Criminal Court sentenced 12 out of 23 case defendants to death, 10 to life imprisonment, and had acquitted one defendant.
Giza said most people have a very basic question when they see a limo.
The Giza Criminal Court had postponed the retrial on 24 October to continue hearing witness testimonies.
She leaves two sons, Walter Giza and his wife Janet of Sturbridge and Robert Giza and his wife Sandra of Warren; five grandchildren, Grant, Maxine, Jacqueline, Amanda and Andrew and several nieces and nephews.
Deputy Director of Giza Security Nabil Farag was killed in September during a joint security operation launched by the police and army in the village of Kerdasa in Giza.
Unknown gunmen attacked a checkpoint in Giza on Sunday at dawn, injuring three policemen, according to the Ministry of Interior.
The Ministry of Interior released a statement Monday claiming the arrest of a "dangerous terrorist" involved in a Giza bombing that claimed the life of a civilian bystander.
Danish Photographer Andreas Hvid with his girl friend allegedly atop of Giza Pyramid - screenshot of video CAIRO -- 7 December 2018: The explicit video claimed to be filmed atop of the Great Pyramid of Giza by a Danish photographer has been referred to Egypt's top prosecutor to investigate its authenticity.
The Giza governorate is currently discussing plans to spend EGP 30m on a new water pumping station to help irrigate the Zimr Canal, which sits on 4940 acres of land.
Sound and Light Show at Giza Pyramids, May 16, 2015 -- Wikimedia CAIRO - 27 October 2018: Chinese Vice-President Wang Qishan on Saturday visited the Great Pyramids of Giza where he was received by Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani and Minister of Tourism Rania el-Mashat.