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(both: gē`zə), or

Al Jizah

(äl jē`zö), city (1990 est. pop. 2,680,500), capital of Giza governorate, N Egypt, surburb of Cairo. It is a manufacturing and agricultural trade center. Products include textiles, cigarettes, and apparel. Giza is the seat of government ministries, cultural and research institutes, the Univ. of Cairo, and Egypt's film industry. The area was settled in antiquity. Nearby are the three Great Pyramidspyramid.
The true pyramid exists only in Egypt, though the term has also been applied to similar structures in other countries. Egyptian pyramids are square in plan and their triangular sides, which directly face the points of the compass, slope upwards at approximately a
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, surrounded by mastabas, with the Great Sphinxsphinx
, mythical beast of ancient Egypt, frequently symbolizing the pharaoh as an incarnation of the sun god Ra. The sphinx was represented in sculpture usually in a recumbent position with the head of a man and the body of a lion, although some were constructed with rams'
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 to the south; it has been a heavily trafficked sightseeing area for centuries.



or Al Jizah, a city in the Arab Republic of Egypt, in Upper Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, on the Cairo-Aswan railroad. The southwestern suburb of Cairo. Population, 571,200 (1966). It is a major trade (mainly grain) and tourism center. There is some tobacco industry.

Near Giza, in the Libyan Desert, stand the majestic pyramid-tombs of the pharaohs Khufu (Cheops), Khafre (Chephren), and Menkaure (Mycerinus). They were built in the first half of the third millennium B.C. and in Hellenistic literature were listed as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The grandest is the pyramid of Khufu, or the Great Pyramid (architect, Heminunu; height, 146.6 m; base length, 233 m). The pyramid of Khafre is 143.5 m high and 215.25 m long at the base. The pyramid of Menkaure is 62 m high and 108.4 m long at the base. A memorial temple was joined to each pyramid on the eastern side and was connected by a passageway to the smallest (lowest) temple in the valley. Near the lowest temple of Khafre’s pyramid is the Great Sphinx, a fantastic being with the body of a lion and a portrait head of the pharaoh, carved out of a cliff (length, 57 m; height, 20 m).

There is also a necropolis in the field of the pyramids, where over 7,000 noble Egyptians from the second to the sixth dynasties are buried. Excavations began in the 19th century. The tombs of Giza have provided rich material for studying the means of production, social life, and culture of Egypt in the time of the Old Kingdom (c. 2800-c. 2250 B.C.). Many tombs revealed objects of the burial cult, household utensils, work tools, and weapons. One tomb contained a set of flint knives, which were used along with bronze knives. Pottery of all kinds and some sculpture were found. Beautiful bas-reliefs with scenes from the lives of the deceased as well as hieroglyphic inscriptions were uncovered in several tombs.


Reisner, G. A. A History of the Giza Necropolis, vols. 1-2. Cambridge-London, 1942-55.
Hassan, S. Excavations at Giza, vols. 1-10. Cairo, 1932-60.
Junker, H. Giza, vols. 1-12. Vienna-Leipzig, 1929-55.
References in periodicals archive ?
The tallest genotypes over all treatments were Giza 843, Gazira 2, Gazira 1 and Giza 2 with mean values of 95.
Thirteen defendants had filed an appeal to the Court of Cassation against the verdict of the Giza Criminal Court.
Four separate experiments in each season in 20th April, 5th May, of 20th May and 5th June include of each Giza 21, Giza 22, Giza 111, H2L12, H30 and H32genotypes.
In addition to a guided tour of selected monuments as a general introduction, the Giza 3D website allows users to roam throughout the Necropolis, visit carefully restored tombs, shafts and connected burial chambers and enter four of the site's ancient temples, including Khufu and Menkaure's pyramids.
The demonstration came in the wake of alleged violations at Giza Zoo and some tourist villages.
In his new role, Giza will implement growth plans for both Cogmedix and its clients.
MGM MIRAGE (NYSE:MGM), an entertainment company headquartered in Las Vegas, Nevada, has signed an agreement with New Giza for Real Estate Development, an Egyptian company.
Giza is well known in the printing industry, having served as vice president of sales for Base-Line for many years.
The extensive literature on ancient monuments like Stonehenge and the pyramids of Giza includes more than a few revisionist titles devoted to exposing the "real" artists behind these works: extraterrestrials.
According to certain British millennialists, former President George Bush would be conducting a Black Mass inside the great Giza structure, summoning evil forces at midnight on behalf of an "Illuminati elite" of human-reptile hybrids.
The Sphinx is like a chronically ill man,'' said Zahi Hawass, the government director of the Giza pyramids.