Glass Beads

Glass Beads

 

small, round or many-sided beads made from transparent or colored glass (less frequently, from metal), with holes for threading.

Necklaces were plaited and parts of clothing were woven from strings of glass beads as far back as ancient Egypt. Venice, which took the secret of glass bead production from Byzantium in the tenth century, supplied beads to many countries of the world. In the middle of the 18th century, M. V. Lomonsov began the production of Russian glass beads. The enamel luster and shimmering of the grainy surface of glass beads give particular liveliness to the rich gradations of color in handbags, tobacco pouches, and covers (for vessels, chibouks, and walking sticks) woven out of glass beads, as well as in many thematic embroidery panels (with milk-white or opalescent backgrounds in the 18th century and turquoise or lilac backgrounds in the first half of the 19th century). After the 1860’s, the art of embroidering with glass beads developed only in the folk crafts, which mastered it in the mid-19th century.

REFERENCE

Dudareva, V. A. Biser v starinnom rukodelii. Moscow, 1923.
References in classic literature ?
Think of Milton, Shakespeare, Washington, standing before a reverent world tricked out in the glass beads, the brass ear-rings and tin trumpery of the savages of the plains!
Some chiefs had ornamented their necks with a crescent and collars of glass beads, red and white; nearly all were armed with bows, arrows, and shields and carried on their shoulders a sort of net containing those round stones which they cast from their slings with great skill.
There, spread forth, without regard to order--indeed, we may say, in charming disorder--are the showy stuffs, the glass beads, the ivory tusks, the rhinoceros'-teeth, the shark's-teeth, the honey, the tobacco, and the cotton of these regions, to be purchased at the strangest of bargains by customers in whose eyes each article has a price only in proportion to the desire it excites to possess it.
Men voyaged by thousands to the West: some to barter glass beads, and such like jewels, for the furs of the Indian hunter; some to conquer virgin empires; and one stern band to pray.
Finally one of them, an elderly man, with a necklace and bracelet of great lustrous glass beads and the skin of some beautiful mottled amber-colored animal slung over his shoulders, ran forward and embraced most tenderly the youth whom we had saved.
Around the neck thus ensheathed, was a collar of cylindrical glass beads, diverse in color, and so arranged as to form images of deities, of the scarabaeus, etc, with the winged globe.
She was one of the blackest of her race; and her round shining eyes, glittering as glass beads, moved with quick and restless glances over everything in the room.
And several times a week a coast caravan came in with trade goods,--ghastly glazed calico that made you shudder only to look at it, glass beads value about a penny a quart, confounded spotted cotton handkerchiefs.
Tenders are invited for resurfacing with bituminous mixture, hot mix asphalt & pavement stripping, edge line, white with glass beads.
Experts previously thought that the remnants of glassworking operations found more than 100 years ago at a site in southwestern Nigeria were evidence of glass being imported and then reworked, but recent research has shown that the thousands of glass beads and other pieces dated to between the 11th and 15th centuries and were made in the area.
The new spores produced in the glass beads section could be cleaned easily and had similar surface characteristics to the original ones.