Gliding


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Gliding

 

a variety of sport flying that includes competitions in gliders—unpowered heavier-than-air aircraft. Contemporary gliding activities include high-speed flights over triangular courses of 100, 200, 300 and 500 km; flights to a goal point and return; and flights with a landing at a goal point. There are also open-course distance flights and distance flights with one or two obligatory turning points. Competitions are conducted in gliders of the standard class, which limits wingspan to 15 m, and the open class, which has no design restrictions.

The emergence of gliding as a sport dates to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In Russia the first glider groups were founded in the early 1900’s. Among those associated with these early groups were N. E. Zhukovskii in Moscow, A. V. Shiukov in Tbilisi, N. B. Delone and G. P. Adler in Kiev, N. A. Rynin and V. A. Lebedev in St. Petersburg, and K. K. Artseulov in the Crimea. The early work of such scientists and aircraft designers as A. N. Tupolev, B. N. Iur’ev, V. P. Vetchinkin, S. P. Korolev, S. V. Il’iushin, A. S. Iakovlev, and O. K. Antonov was concerned with gliding.

In the USSR large-scale development of gliding as a sport began in 1923, when the first all-Union gliding trials were held at Koktebel’, now Planerskoe, in the Crimea. At these trials L. A. Iungmeister established the first national records, in a glider designed by Artseulov. The development of gliding as a sport was connected with the activity of the Society of Friends of the Air Force and Osoaviakhim (Society for Assistance to Defense and Aviation and Chemical Construction, subsequently DOSAAF, All-Union Voluntary Society for Cooperation With the Army, Air Force, and Navy).

In 1934 Osoaviakhim established the title of Master Glider Pilot of the USSR. Among the first masters were L. G. Minov, S. N. Anokhin, I. M. Sukhomlin, V. L. Lisitsyn, V. M. Il’-chenko, V. L. Rastorguev, M. K. Ratsenskaia, I. A. Kartashov, and A. V. Stepanchonok. Glider airfields and schools were opened in various parts of the country, and glider clubs were organized. By 1941, Soviet glider pilots held 13 of the 18 world records registered by the International Aeronautical Federation (FAI). In 1948 the All-Union Glider Section was founded, and in 1960 it joined the Soviet Federation of Aviation Sports. An independent glider federation was established in 1966. In 1949 gliding was included in the Uniform All-Union Sports Classification. Between 1923 and 1974, 36 national championship competitions were held in the USSR. Among the all-around champions of the USSR and world record holders are M. M. Veretennikov, A. P. Samosadova, V. V. Goncharenko, V. I. Chuvikov, E. G. Rudenskii, M. I. Afrikanova, O. A. Manafova, E. V. Laan, S. P. Sudeikite, and V. Iu. Panafutin. In 1964 the DOSAAF Central Glider Sports Club was opened in Orel.

World gliding championships have been held biennially since 1948. In 1950 the FAI established a glider commission to oversee the development of gliding as a sport throughout the world and the organization of major international competitions and world championships. (In 1974, FAI membership included glider pilots from about 60 countries.) In 1974 Soviet glider pilots held nine out of 32 world records. Among these pilots are O. V. Klepikova, whose 749-km flight set a world record for the single-seater class; T. D. Pavlova and Iu. A. Kuznetsov, holders of the distance records for two-seaters at 846 km and 921 km, respectively; T. N. Zagainova, who established the single-seater distance record of 731 km for flight to a goal point; and I. A. Gorokhova, holder of the two-seater record for flight to a goal point at 864 km.

Abroad, gliding as a sport is most highly developed in Poland, the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, and Yugoslavia. World champions include E. Makula and J. Wróblewski (Poland), A. Smith and G. Moffat (United States), H. Wödl (Austria), G. Reichmann (FRG), and G. Ax (Sweden).

The techniques of sport gliding are discussed in the journal Kryl’ia Rodiny, published by DOSAAF.

A. D. VINOKUROV

References in classic literature ?
Immediately a brilliant light from the next room, or rather from the palace adjoining, shone upon the room in which he was gently gliding into his last sleep.
The long, dark streak of the gliding weapon, and the little bubbling vortex which followed its rapid flight, were easily to be seen: but it was not until the handle snot again into the air by its own reaction, and its master catching it in his hand, threw its tines uppermost, that Elizabeth was acquainted with the success of the blow.
She returned gliding from the bedroom hermetically sealed in her black shawl just as she had gone in, with the protruding hand holding the lighted candle and relieved my perplexity as to her morbid turn of mind by telling me something of the murder story in a strange tone of indifference even while referring to its most horrible features.
Just as far as the eye could reach, these painted lights were massed together-- like a vast garden of many-colored flowers, except that these blossoms were never still; they were ceaselessly gliding in and out, and mingling together, and seducing you into bewildering attempts to follow their mazy evolutions.
The prahu was gliding through a stretch of comparatively quiet and placid water where the stream spread out into a little basin just above a narrow gorge through which they had just forced their way by dint of the most laborious exertions on the part of the crew.
One of them, assistant manager and chief executive Steve Prepost, recently was named the national 2008 Hang Gliding Instructor of the Year.
His company also takes care of everything else surrounding the Gliding Championships, such as booking hotels and flights for each team.
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Her topics are glide and glide insertion, nasality viewed from the perspectives of the letters a and e, and interference from gliding and nasalization.
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Saturday after his craft's right wing touched the ground, sending it tumbling onto the 20-acre field owned by the Sylmar Hang Gliding Association.
Available from Optima Products, the Thera-Glide Safety-Glider's patented automatic-locking system prevents gliding as a resident sits.