glutamine

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glutamine

(glo͞o`təmēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acidsamino acid
, any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins.
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 commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian protein. Its structure is identical to that of glutamic acidglutamic acid
, organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the l-stereoisomer occurs in mammalian proteins.
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, except that the acidic side-chain carboxyl group of glutamine has been coupled with ammonia, yielding an amide. The glutamic acid-glutamine interconversion is of central importance to the regulation of the levels of toxic ammonia in the body, and it is thus not surprising that when the concentrations of the amino acids of blood plasma are measured, glutamine is found to have the highest of all. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of ureaurea
, organic compound that is the principal end product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals. Urea was the first animal metabolite to be isolated in crystalline form; its crystallization was described in the early 18th cent.
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 (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purinespurine,
type of organic base found in the nucleotides and nucleic acids of plant and animal tissue. The German chemist Emil Fischer did much of the basic work on purines and introduced the term into the chemical literature in the early 20th cent.
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 (necessary for the synthesis of genetic material). Once glutamine is incorporated into proteins, its relatively unreactive side-chain amide participates in very few reactions. Glutamine is not essential to the human diet, since it can be synthesized in the body from glutamic acid. Glutamine was isolated from beet juice in 1883, but was not isolated from a protein until 1932; it was chemically synthesized in 1933.

glutamine

[′glüd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H10O3N2 An amino acid; the monamide of glutamic acid; found in the juice of many plants and essential to the development of certain bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gln supplementation increased the number of goblet cells in the duodenum compared with the control (p<0.
The analysis showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the Gln and control group (MD: 0.
followed by in-vitro 1H-###-Pi###-Increase in lactate Glu GABA Gln aspartate in NCM than
This process will require a review of current and future supply chain practices to identify, among other things, the extent of locations the GLN numbering system will need for support operations, such as billing and delivery location.
1fw1 optimizada en vacio 1fw1 optimizada en aqua # Residuo # Residuo # Residuo # Residuo 11 TYR 60 PRO 11 TYR 59 VAL l3 ARG 70 HIS 13 ARG 60 PRO 14 SER 71 GLN 14 SER 70 HIS 15 SER 72 SER 15 SER 71 GLN 16 CYS 73 LEU 16 CYS 72 SER 17 SER 74 ALA 17 SER 73 LEU 18 TRP 75 ILE 18 TRP 7d ALA 19 ARG 106 ILE 19 ARG 75 ILE 20 VAL 107 ALA 20 VAL 107 ALA 36 ILE 108 GLY 36 ILE 108 GLY 38 LEU 111 GLN 38 LEU 111 GLN 43 GLY 112 PRO 42 GLY 112 PRO 45 GLN 114 GLN 43 GLY 115 ASN 46 PHE 115 ASN 45 GLN 116 LEU 50 PHE 116 LEU 46 PHE 117 SER 54 ASN 117 SER 50 PHE 118 VAL 56 MET 118 VAL 54 ASN 120 LYS 57 LYS 120 LYS 56 MET 172 ASN 58 GLN 172 ASN 57 LYS 175 ARG 59 VAL 175 ARG 58 GLN Tabla 7.
La forma como se conecten las tareas en un sistema GLN da como resultado una arquitectura (ver Figura 2).
This highly expandable and scalable model allows us to connect to up to 99 users including GLN Classrooms with multiple students, and individual students logging in from home or their office, while remaining fully integrated into one virtual GLN Teaching Studio.
Gln, Glu, GlyGln, AlaGln and all other chemicals were of analytical grade and purchased from Nacalai Tesque (Kyoto, Japan), unless otherwise indicated.
During the quarter ended 30 September 2010, GLN Corporation produced 17,315 oz of gold ('Au'), bringing total production for nine months to 30 September 2010 to 50,865 oz Au.
Substitution of Leu with Gln at aa 440 of loop 2, which dramatically affects the hydropathic character of this region, was also observed in 12 Korean Ad7 strains.
The data indicate that XRCC1 399Gln and XRCC3 241Met are associated with defects in BER, and XPD 312Asn and XPD 751 Gln with NER.
The cooperation between CIBT and WU will consist of American Hotel and Lodging Educational Institute ("AHLEI") programs, exclusively licensed by CIBT China, and also Emergency Management training programs through the GLN Center and face-to-face instruction.