The mussels are then taken to Genoa, where they are held until the glochidia
The solution was stirred until a homogeneous mixture of glochidia
Another complicating factor is many of the host fishes required for glochidia
transformation are not commonly propagated.
However, based on field observations of the number of gravid females releasing glochidia
each year in the spring (J.
Winged mapleleaf glochidia
are released in ribbon-like packets (Figure 1).
The mussels were placed into in-stream holding cages so that they could easily be retrieved the following spring, when fertile females would likely be gravid, or carrying mature larval mussels called glochidia
The structure of glochidia
was observed by immersing dry microsporangia in water:ethanol:glycerol (1:1:1) solution for 24 hours.
Released from the gills of an adult mussel into the water no bigger than grains of sand, the glochidia
require a host for the several weeks it takes them to metamorphose into tiny mussels able to live on their own.
fluminea has negatively impacted the already rapidly declining native bivalves by depleting food resources, reducing habitat space and reducing bivalve reproduction by ingesting large numbers of unionid sperm, glochidia
, and newly formed juveniles (Strayer 1999).
The transformation of glochidia
to juvenile mussel occurs largely during the parasitic period.
triquetra (Zanatta and Murphy, 2008 and references therein), and the mussel has evolved a unique strategy of capturing the fish to infest it with glochidia
(Barnhart et al.
imbecillis does not depend on parasitism (It carries the young in its marsupia during metamorphosis from glochidia
to juvenile mussels, thus eliminating the parasitic stage on fishes which other species undergo) and it is hermaphroditic.