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Related to Glossators: School of Glossators, Legal glossator



a school of jurists of the 11-13th centuries at the University of Bologna in Italy. The remarks inscribed by the glossators in the margins and between the lines of texts that they were studying were called glosses (hence the term “glossator”).

The glossators revived—at first for teaching purposes and later for practical application as well—the classical Roman law, mainly the Code of Justinian. The founder of the glossator school, Irnerius, was the first to separate Roman law from the general rhetoric curriculum and teach it as a separate subject, not in excerpts but in full. The glossator school is represented by Bulgarus, Martinus, Hugo, Azo, Jacobus, and Accursius, who systematized his predecessors’ work in a single compendium of glosses, the Glossa ordinaria. The glossators did not understand the historical limitation of legal institutions, considering Roman law outside time and above the state (ratio scripta—written reason). With their explications they promoted the imperial policies of the German emperors and the increase of feudal exploitation. At the same time, because of the secular character of the argumentation, the comprehensive, meticulous comparisons of legal norms, and the extensive use of juridical concepts and categories, the glossators laid the foundation of juridical science and culture, which had been almost completely lost since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The glossators were the first to envisage the acceptance of Roman law by Western Europe, and by their activity they facilitated its development. Their labors served as the foundation of later commentary on the Roman law by the postglossators and legists.


Sauvigny, F. K. O rimskom prave v srednie veka [iz soch.]. St. Petersburg, 1838. (Translated from German.)
Dernburg, H. Pandekty, vols. 1-3. Moscow-St. Petersburg, 1906-11. (Translated from German.)
Muromtsev, S. A. Retseptsiia rimskogo prava na Zapade. Moscow, 1886.


References in periodicals archive ?
In conclusion, the earliest glossators of the Commedia universally characterize Malacoda's gastric eruption with critical language evocative of socio-political satires.
As mentioned above, the canon law occurred at the same time as the glossators.
Wailes explains in detail, saw Jesus's riddling as a punishment fit for a crowd who didn't want and didn't deserve, because of their vicious nature, to understand him; these glossators often repeat some variant of a comment by Bede the Venerable that Jesus's audience comprises those who "because of the closed senses of their hearts care neither to [approach Jesus for enlightenment] nor to know the truth, and rightly therefore hear through parables and enigmas.
He is numbered among the outstanding glossators (commentators) who were contemporary with the great gloss (commentary) of Accursus.
39, Suetonius, Horace, and a wide range of legal glossators and commentators.
In the fashion of medieval writers, whether the authors of the Midrash or the glossators and commentators on the medieval canon law, I shall use paraphrases of the text itself as the basis of my analysis, and the organization of the Article will be structured around particular clauses of the text.
Modern critics are less forgiving than Bongo or the Geneva glossators.
The conjecture that Boccaccio's Lisabetta represents a synthesis of Virgil's and Jerome's Didos evolves into a fascinating discussion of the centuries-long controversy regarding the relative merits of the historical and poetic versions of Dido--a debate with social and moral implications that extend well beyond the insular world of poets and glossators, broaching such universally pressing issues as fame, infamy, and misogyny.
Whereas Pena and Covarrubias primarily interpreted canon law and its glossators, others understood the introduction of prohibited books in more theological and scriptural terms.
The liberal side will allow glossators or commentators or even interpreters of the original and basic texts of the religion.
This regulatory system or "dispensation" must therefore register not only in the historical world of biblical authors and glossators but also in the modern poetic community Coleridge constructs within and around lyric.
Antonio Manuel Hespanha has argued that the translation of Justinian's Codex and its medieval Italian glossators under Dom Joao I (1424) facilitated the codification of patrilinear inheritance practices for feudal properties and jurisdictions, a process that in Italy and Spain had been achieved earlier with the redaction of the Lombard Libri Feodorum in the twelfth century and the Siete Partidas in 1348, respectively.