Glottal Consonants

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Glottal Consonants

 

consonantal sounds formed in the larynx. Glottal consonants are produced when the stream of air passing through the glottis is obstructed by the closed or narrowed (but not taut) vocal cords and then released. Glottalized consonants, called glottal plosives—for example, [p], [t], and [k] in Georgian—are formed when there is an occlusion. When there is an opening, a weak friction noise occurs, producing a glottal fricative consonant such as the pharyngeal fricative [h] at the beginning of a word in German. The term “glottal consonants” is sometimes also used to designate uvular, postdorsal (velar, or postpalatal), and even dorsal (mediopalatal) consonants.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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(15) Word-initial Word-medial Word-final /j/ j efo 'rainy season' waja 'ear' [p.sup.h]aj 'heavy' /w/ wigi 'snake' ?awa 'grinding stone' haw 'go' 2.5 Glottal Consonants
A very interesting feature of Ganza's consonant system is found in the glottal consonants. Phonetically speaking there are only two glottal consonants in Ganza, the stop [?] and the fricative [h], which contrast word-initially and to a lesser extent word-medially.
One final thing to mention regarding the glottal consonants is that in two high-frequency lexical items I observed alternation between the oral glottal stop [?] and the voiced velar stop [g].