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Related to Glucocorticoids: cortisol, Corticosteroids
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex in humans and vertebrate animals. Glucocorticoids are steroids and are characterized by the presence of HO— or Glucocorticoids at the 11th and 17th carbohydrate atoms. Formation of glucocorticoids is .stimulated by the adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the pituitary gland.

The principal glucocorticoids are hydrocortisone (cortisol) and cortisone. Glucocorticoids exert influence on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, promote the formation of glucose and the synthesis of glycogen from proteins in the liver (gluconeogenesis), and retard the biosynthesis of high-molecular-weight fatty acids. Absence of glucocorticoids lowers the body’s resistance. During the action of unfavorable factors (trauma, blood loss, and some other states of stress), secretion of glucocorticoids increases. Glucocorticoids decrease the permeability of the capillaries and decelerate the development of allergic inflammations. Glucocorticoids and a number of their synthetic analogues (prednisone, prednisolone, and dexamethasone) are used in medicine as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, since they retard protein synthesis and accelerate its decomposition. Their prolonged use is contraindicated because the body develops a negative nitrogen balance and the healing of wounds, ulcers, and so on is retarded. In children, delayed development and cessation of growth are observed with prolonged use of these hormones. A number of glucocorticoids and their synthetic derivatives possess to some degree the properties of mineral corticoids: they cause retention of sodium in the tissues and hypokalemia.


Iudaev, N. A. “Svoistva, funktsii i obmen steroidnykh gormonov kory nadpochechnikov.” In Khimicheskie osnovy protsessov zhiznedeiatel’nosti. Moscow, 1962.
Berzin, T. Biokhimiia gormonov. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from German.)
Leites, S. M., and N. N. Lapteva. Ocherki po patofiziologii obmena veshchestv i endokrinnoi sistemy. Moscow, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
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These results suggested that SQV plus glucocorticoids can resolve systemic inflammation to a large degree by inhibiting the decrease of GR[alpha] and I[kappa]B[alpha] in the cytoplasm, thus improving glucocorticoid resistance as well.
Exposure to ELS or glucocorticoids has also been shown to lead to epigenetic alterations of genes such as CRH, NR3C1, and FKBP5.
They found that the mice that were exposed to increased levels of glucocorticoid became twice the weight of those that were exposed to controlled levels of the hormone.
To determine whether neonatal exposure to other estrogens could impact the uterine response to glucocorticoids, a subset of pups were exposed to 10 [micro]g/kg [E.sub.2] dissolved in corn oil by subcutaneous injection on PND1-5.
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