Treatment with isomerase enzymes, such as glucose isomerase, provides a highly efficient and cost-saving method for production of HFCS.
Several microbial sources have been used for production of glucose isomerase in laboratory scale, such as Streptomyces spp., Arthrobacter spp., Clostridium thermosulfurogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Thermoanaerobacter spp., Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Bacillus spp.
Fermentation of D-xylose by yeasts using glucose isomerase
in the medium to convert D-xylose to D-xylulose, Biotechnology Letters, 2: 273-278.
For this reason it is also known as glucose isomerase
. This process was the first large-scale industrial use of an immobilized enzyme (Vieille and Zeikus 2001).
The Immmobilised Glucose Isomerase
(IGI) of S.murinus, was purchased from Novozymes, Denmark available in the form of brown cylindrical shape granules with diameter of 0.3 to 1.0 mm and length of 1.0 to 1.5 mm.
As background, HFCS is prepared from a high-dextrose-equivalent corn starch hydrolysate by partial enzymatic conversion of glucose (dextrose) to fructose using an insoluble glucose isomerase
enzyme preparation that is rendered insoluble, or fixed.
La obtencion del jarabe fructosado se realizo a 60[grados]C, en un reactor de columna con camisa para control de temperatura, con una relacion 1:20 (diametro:altura) y se usaron 2,0g de enzima glucosa izomerasa (Sweetzyme IT[R], Bagsvaerd, Denmark) con actividad de 160 IGIU/g, donde IGIU son las siglas de immobilized glucose isomerase
units (Bandlish et al., 2002).
Their application is direct in different industries--food and feed (alpha amylase, glucose isomerase
, cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, phytase), detergent (alkaline protease, cellulase), pulp and paper (xylanase, laccase, cellulase, pectinase), leather tanning (tannase) and pharmaceuticals (penicillin acylases, cephalosporin acylases, glutaryl 7-ACA acylases and D-amino acid oxidases) and waste treatment (laccases, tannasass).
Experimental studies have shown that many glycolytic enzymes bind cytoskeletal proteins reversibly including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase), glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glucose isomerase
, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase (3,4) and that the interaction may be electrostatic in nature (3).
Amylase, glucoamylase and glucose isomerase
have been used in corn wet milling to produce high fructose corn syrup.
subtilis include, modification of milk proteins in dairy products by neutral proteases, starch and maltose syrup production by the different amylases and pullulanases, high fructose corn syrup production utilizing glucose isomerases
and modification of the barley cell wall in brewing processes by beta-glucanases (Zukowski, 1992).
Sixteen chapters cover subjects such as bioseparations using hollow fibres, extraction techniques, bioseparations with supercritical fluids, scale-up techniques, precipitation of biomolecules, foam-based separation of proteins, eletrophoresis, affinity chromotography, membrane separation, microfiltration in the drying process industry, whey protein isolation and fractionation using ion exchangers, separation processes in flavour manufacture, separation and purification processes for the recovery of industrial enzymes, and finally novel processes for the recovery of high-purity glucose isomerases