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see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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γ-glutamyl cysteinyl glycine, a tripep-tide formed from radicals of three amino acids—glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. A peculiarity of the structure of glutathione is the peptide bond between cysteine and glutamic acid, in which the γ-carboxyl of the glutamic acid participates. Glutathione is present in all living organisms and is very important for oxidation-reduction reactions in connection with the capacity of the sulfhydryl group (SH—) of cysteine to undergo the reversible reaction

Glutathione can act as a coenzyme in the action of cathepsins, papain, and other proteolytic enzymes. The function of glutathione in metabolism apparently also includes the protection of the SH group of cytoplasm proteins against oxidation.


C10H17O6N3S A widely distributed tripeptide that is important in plant and animal tissue oxidation reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparative inhibition of yeast glutathione reductase by arsenicals and arsenothiols.
001 The values are expressed as the mean [+ or -] SEM *-one way AN OVA analysis **- post hoc Tukey multiple range test Group 1- control, Group 2- acute treatment, Group 3- chronic treatment, Group 4 chronic and acute treatments CK-MB- creatine kinase activity, cTn I- cardiac troponin I, GSH- glutathione, GR- glutathione reductase, LOW lactate dehydrogenase, MDA- malondialdehyde
Glutathione reductase activity in red blood cells and riboflavin nutritional status in humans.
All these reports are consistent with the notion that the ozone-induced decline in photosynthetic activity could trigger reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana FeSOD and glutathione reductase mRNAs.
Liver homogenates were used for the estimation also of catalase activity (CAT) (Aebi 1974), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) (Misura and Fridovich 1972), gluthatione peroxidase activity (GPx) (Tappel 1978), glutathione reductase avtivity (GR) (Pinto et al.
SOD: Superoxide dismutase, POD: Peroxidase, CAT: Catalase, GR: Glutathione reductase, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, [S.
Although early reports describe 2-AAPA as being an inhibitor of glutathione reductase, a more recent study reports that this dithiocarbamate derivative acts as a direct inhibitor of Grx as well (Sadhu et al.
The major antioxidant enzymes include glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase which differs from each other in structure, tissue distribution and cofactor requirement.
8, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Bio-Research Products announced today that it is adding a liquid version of Glutathione Reductase (GR # 801) to its product line.
Under normal physiological conditions, the GSH concentration is mainly controlled by glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) (Cnubben et al.
The intestinal biopsies showed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, were increased in children with both active and silent celiac disease while the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase and the glutathione content were significantly reduced.
In order to prevent OxS, there is an elaborate antioxidant defence system consisting of enzymatic antioxidants, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and numerous non-enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione, vitamin C, E, Q, carotenoids, and uric acid (Tauler et al.

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