glycol

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glycol

(glī`kōl), dihydric alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
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 in which the two hydroxyl groups are bonded to different carbon atoms; the general formula for a glycol is (CH2)n(OH)2. The most important glycol is the simplest, ethylene glycol, or 1,2-ethanediol, CH2OHCH2OH, a slightly sweet-tasting, somewhat viscous liquid that is miscible with water. Because of its low volatility (b.p. 197°C;) and low corrosive activity, it is widely used in mixtures of automobile antifreezeantifreeze,
substance added to a solvent to lower its freezing point. The solution formed is called an antifreeze mixture. Antifreeze is typically added to water in the cooling system of an internal-combustion engine so that it may be cooled below the freezing point of pure
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. Ethylene glycol can be esterified to form polyesters, e.g., DacronDacron
, trademark for a polyester fiber. Dacron is a condensation polymer obtained from ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. Its properties include high tensile strength, high resistance to stretching, both wet and dry, and good resistance to degradation by chemical bleaches
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, and can be nitrated to form an explosive used in mining. It is prepared commercially by oxidation of ethylene at high temperature over a silver oxide catalyst, followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysishydrolysis
, chemical reaction of a compound with water, usually resulting in the formation of one or more new compounds. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water.
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 of the ethylene oxide that is formed.

Cellosolves (e.g., methyl cellosolve, CH3OCH2CH2OH) are monoether derivatives of ethylene glycol. They are excellent solvents, having solvent properties of both ethers and alcohols; they have other uses as well. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to thicken shampoo and cosmetics. It can also be attached to other molecules via a process called pegylation. When pegylated to medicinal drugs, it can alter their distribution in the body, metabolism, and excretion. Such alteration can lead to improved dosing intervals and may also have beneficial effects on safety and efficacy. Pegylation can also mask certain drugs, such as interferon, from the immune system, preventing their rejection.

glycol

[′glī‚kȯl]
(organic chemistry)
Cn H2 n (OH)2 An organic chemical with two hydroxyl groups on an essentially aliphatic carbon chain. Also known as dihydroxy alcohol.
HOCH2CH2OH A colorless dihydroxy alcohol used as an antifreeze, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of dynamites and resins. Also known as ethlene glycol.
References in periodicals archive ?
'AHAs commonly found in skincare products include glycolic acid, lactic acid, and mandelic acid.
food segment of fig glycolic extract can further be classified as bakery, confectionery and dairy products.
The company said Glycolic acid is widely considered to be the gold standard for achieving radiant, glowing skin.
Conclusion: This study infers that superficial scars showed greater improvement with microdermabrasion while reduction in active acne lesions was much more with glycolic acid peel.
Dull dead skin cells are softened and buffed away by the Glycolic acid exfoliant to hl;eave skin looking and feeling more youthful.
The agents studied in the 11 chemical peel trials included salicylic acid, glycolic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, mandelic acid, amino fruit acid, and lipohydroxy acids.
"Say you have pigmentation but you've also got skin texture problems - you can use a salicylic acid treatment and then another containing glycolic," explained Dr Jonquille.
It gives a fresh boost of confidence to the user as it includes glycolic, salicylic as well as lactic acid that are known as skin boosters.
Standardized alcoholic propolis extract (Batch 1402110) (PSE), glycolic propolis extract (Batch 1480210) (PGE), and water-soluble propolis dry extract (Batch 9050213) (PSDE) were produced by Apis Flora (Ribeirao Preto/SP-Brazil) by formulating a mixture of raw propolis materials [24].
The glycolic extract of pomegranate (200 mg/mL) was donated by the MAPRIC Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics Company (Sao Paulo, Brazil).
Fifteen percent trichloroacetic acid (TCA), 35% glycolic acid, sable brush, spirit Petroleum jelly, cotton gauze, graduated dispensing cup, surgical caps, acetone, timer gloves, and fan for cooling
Key Words: Methanol-gasoline; Glycolic esters; Phase stability; Evaporation.