Glycolipids


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Glycolipids

 

fatty substances containing carbohydrates. The main representatives of glycolipids are the cerebrosides (which are characteristic of nerve tissue) and the gangliosides (which are observed in nerve ganglions and are characteristic of cellular membranes, especially the membranes of erythrocytes). Glycolipids consist of the diatomic saturated alcohol sphingosine, the hexatomic carbohydrate hexose (galactose or glucose), a fatty acid with 24 carbon atoms, and sialic acid.

References in periodicals archive ?
Symptoms increase with age due to the progressive glycolipid accumulation in the vascular system, kidneys and heart leading to kidney failure, heart disease or strokes.
But glycolipid (Inagaki et al., 2006; Para et al., 2009; Mansoor et al., 2007; La et al., 2012; Ikada et al., 2009) was scarce investigated which also belonged to the liposoluble constituent of cervus nippon antler velvet layer.
In this 2011 trial, women with dry to very dry skin took either 350 mg each day of the plant ceramide oil--providing glycolipids, phytoceramides and glycosylceramides--or a placebo.
In addition, information obtained from TLC showed that the biosurfactant reacted with anthrone, thus demonstrating the presence of yellow bands on a silica gel (CCD) plate which indicates that the biosurfactant belongs to the class of glycolipids. Mani et al.
Some studies suggest that this alteration in the cell surface properties can be due the presence of surface antigens, that is, glycopeptidolipids also known as glycolipids [18,19] in Mycobacterium sp., respectively.
Glycans are a constituent of lipopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids, and being surface antigens in microorganisms and viruses, they play a key role in the immune recognition of self and foreign antigens.
Lastly, there is also an algae source from Nannochloropsis that contains phospholipid and glycolipids, which are more similar to krill oils in terms of benefits but also carry very high levels of EPA.
Sialic acids widely distributed in nature as terminal sugars in glycoproteins or glycolipids, impart a net negative charge to cell surface and are reported to be important in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions.
Since uPAR+ podocytes were increased early in Fabry nephropathy, even in the group of patients with better preserved eGFR and lower albuminuria, we explored whether glycolipids accumulated in Fabry disease may increase uPAR expression in cultured human podocytes.
In addition, dendritic cells presenting glycolipids by CD1d molecules to natural killer T cells (NKT), and making contact with NKT by CD40-CD40L interaction, activate NKT to produce IFN-[gamma], a powerful stimulator of macrophages, thereby amplifying the innate immune response [47-49] (Figure 1).
Among the most interesting are the glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, fatsoluble vitamins, and phenols.
The term sugar refers loosely to a number of different types of carbohydrates, including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (common components of glycoproteins and glycolipids).