) and 0 < [xi] <0.1 for salt-insensitive plants (e.g.
The harmful action of salinity on gs (Figure 2A) is a common response of glycophytes
to salt stress, as a way to minimize water losses and maintain high cell water potential (Kusvuran, 2012; Freire et al., 2014; Sousa et al., 2016), probably regulated by the occurrence of a chemical signaling between roots and shoots after perceiving the osmotic stress, which stimulates stomatal closure (Souza et al., 2011).
The evolution of halophytes, glycophytes
and crops, and its implications for food security under saline conditions.
For accessions [m.sup.2], [m.sup.3], m6, m7, m9, m11, m14 and m15, the Na (+)/Ca (++) and Na (+)/Mg (++) relations at 250 DAT (Figure 4) did not represent the antagonism between nutrients or even showed relative toxicity to ion sodium because such ionic relationships with values below 0.60 are considered suitable for optima efficiency of metabolism in glycophytes
(Ribeiro-Barros et al., 2016).
Plant species, glycophytes
or halophytes, that survive in saline environments exhibit adaptation strategies that involve physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms.
Seckin et al ; Ellouzi et al  Srivastava et al reported that the salt loving species have effective anti-oxidative machineries than glycophytes
. Over production of ROS in cells can leads to oxidative damage to lipid membrane, proteins, and DNA, thereby affecting the structural integrity of membranes, enzyme activities, and the function of chloroplast .
On the other hand, restricted uptake of Na+ and maintenance of K+ level with enhanced growth under NaCl stress in LiCl adapted line could be the result of enhanced capacity of membranes for ionic discrimination like salt tolerance in glycophytes
observed in NaCl tolerant cell lines of citrus, tobacco Medicago sativa, rice and M.
The difference in salt tolerance mechanism of halophytes with that of glycophytes
has already been underlined in the plants of saline land.
Novel light-dark change of proline levels in halophythe (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) and glycophytes
(Hordeum vulgare L.
Markert B (1994) The biological system of the elements (BSE) for terrestrial plants (glycophytes
[Na.sup.+] was a key toxic cation of salt stress, and neither halophytes nor glycophytes
could tolerate large amounts of [Na.sup.+] in the cytoplasm.