Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Wikipedia.


(organic chemistry)
(CHO)2 Colorless, deliquescent powder or liquid with mild odor, melting point 15°C, boiling point 51°C; used to insolubilize starches, cellulosic materials, and proteins, in embalming fluids, for leather tanning, and for rayon shrinkproofing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the simplest dialdehyde, OHC—CHO. In the crystalline and liquid states it is yellow; the vapor is green. Melting point, 15° C; boiling point, 50.4° C; density, 1.4 g/cm3 (20° C); index of refraction nD20.5 1.3826.

Glyoxal is prepared by dehydrogenation of ethylene glycol, HOCH2—CH2OH, over a copper catalyst or by treating tetrachloroethane, Cl2CH—CHCl2, with oleum, followed by hydrolysis of the resultant glyoxal sulfate,

Glyoxal is readily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; it polymerizes readily during storage, particularly in the presence of traces of water. Polymeric glyoxal can be de-polymerized to the monomeric form by distilling over phosphorus pentoxide. In the presence of alkali it undergoes the intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction, yielding glycolic acid. Treatment with ammonia gives imidazole, and with aromatic o-diamines it gives pyrazine derivatives.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dalla Vedova et al., "Glyoxal and methylglyoxal levels in diabetic patients: quantitative determination by a new GC/MS method," Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol.
Growth conditions Control Parameter 18h 42h Wet biomass (mg/ 6.90 [+ or -] 0.81 NS [10.sup.8] cells) TAG, [micro]g/ 16.5 [+ or -] 1.1 15.2 [+ or -] 2.3 [10.sup.8] cells DC, nmol glyoxal NS NS equivalents/mg protein Growth conditions Control 10 mM AKG Parameter 7 d 18h Wet biomass (mg/ NS 7.90 [+ or -] 0.27 * [10.sup.8] cells) TAG, [micro]g/ 15.2 [+ or -] 1.6 15.6 [+ or -] 1.7 [10.sup.8] cells DC, nmol glyoxal 7.01 [+ or -] 0.33 NS equivalents/mg protein Growth conditions 10 mM AKG Parameter 42h 7 d Wet biomass (mg/ NS NS [10.sup.8] cells) TAG, [micro]g/ 18.5 [+ or -] 3.1 16.7 [+ or -] 2.5 [10.sup.8] cells DC, nmol glyoxal NS 5.53 [+ or -] 0.38 * equivalents/mg protein Results are shown as means [+ or -] SEM (n = 6-8).
Patients with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes often demonstrate elevated endogenous dicarbonyls including malondialdehyde (MDA), glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO) [1].
Low molecular weight carbonyl compounds such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal (MGO) behave as precursors of AGEs [5-8].
This assay involves testing out of inhibition of methyl glyoxal (MGO) mediated glycation of bovine serum albumen (BSA) using fluorometry.
Spectrophotometric determination of methyl glyoxal with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.
During prolonged incubation and at high concentrations of glucose, it reacts with proteins/lipids non enzymatically generating reactive dicarbonyl intermediates like a-oxoaldehydes such as Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) which induce the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (Hegab et al.