Gnutella


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Related to Gnutella: BitTorrent, LimeWire

Gnutella

A popular peer-to-peer file sharing network on the Internet. Gnutella lets users share files from user machine to user machine without the use of a central directory, which was the original Napster architecture. Numerous client programs, such as LimeWire, Morpheus, BearShare and Mutella, have been developed that incorporate the Gnutella file sharing protocol. For more information, visit www.gnutella.com.

Developed by Nullsoft/AOL
Nullsoft, makers of the popular Winamp software media player, was acquired by AOL in 1999. In 2000, the Nullsoft division released the Gnutella software on the Internet, but AOL quickly pulled the plug the next day. However, licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), Gnutella spread rapidly in that short time, and Gnutella clients emerged soon after. The Gnutella name is a combination of GNU from the license and the chocolate-hazelnut spread Nutella.

How Files Are Shared
Each client in a Gnutella network is also a server, and the term "servent" is the combination of server and client. When starting for the first time, each Gnutella servent requires the IP address of at least one other servent, which it can obtain from a default list of UDP host caches (UHCs) or GWebcaches. UHCs crawl the Internet looking for Gnutella hosts (servents), and GWebcache servers are updated by the Gnutella hosts themselves.

Once a servent contacts another servent, that servent tries to contact the nodes it is aware of, and the request gets forwarded throughout the Gnutella network until the request times out. High-speed, non-firewalled servents can become "ultrapeers," which can connect to 32 other ultrapeers and 30 regular servents. The ultrapeers maintain key words of the files in the servents and forward them only requests for files they are likely to have. See peer-to-peer network.
References in periodicals archive ?
Gnutella was considered as the second main P2P network.
He uses the random waypoint mobility model with peer-to-peer protocol Gnutella and ad hoc routing protocol OLSR [16] in a network simulator.
While Napster was a closed-source application, Gnutella was an open-source protocol with corporate backing, thus limiting the targets of lawsuits (Kan, 2001).
In [7], the authors evaluated the performance of Gnutella using various flat underlying reactive and proactive routing protocols.
6] state that the Gnutella network has a topology that is highly resilient to the random departure of nodes and even systematic attacks, and describe that most long-lived nodes form a well-connected core in the network.
Today, four networks dominate P2P exchanges on the Web: FastTrack/Kazaa, Emule/Edonkey, BitTorrent and Gnutella.
Gnutella use a flooding technique, a query is sent to all the peers in the system until the required data of peer is found.
Programs like Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, and others, allow users to share their files--including music--and to exchange them freely.
PeerBox, designed for next generation mobiles, allows the users to search for music and download songs from the open peer-to-peer file sharing networks, such as eDonkey 2000, Gnutella and others.
The service enables users to search for music and download songs from p2p file sharing networks such as Gnutella and eDonkey 2000.
The NP-500 showed us how much of the district's bandwidth was being eaten by non-educational applications such as AOL Instant Messenger and Gnutella.
122) Through the Gnutella network, the searching computer contacts only a few other computers in the network that in turn contact other computers, and so on.