Gnutella


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Related to Gnutella: BitTorrent, LimeWire

Gnutella

An earlier and popular peer-to-peer file sharing network on the Internet. Pronounced "nu-tel-uh," Gnutella let users share files without the use of a central directory like the original Napster architecture. The Gnutella name is a combination of GNU from the software license it was issued under and the chocolate-hazelnut spread Nutella.

Gnutella History
Nullsoft, makers of the popular Winamp software media player, was acquired by AOL in 1999. In 2000, the Nullsoft division released Gnutella on the Internet, but AOL quickly pulled the plug. However, licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), Gnutella spread rapidly, and Gnutella clients such as LimeWire, Morpheus, BearShare and Mutella emerged.

In 2010, LimeWire and its successor LimeWire Pirate Edition (LPE) were shut down by court order. LPE was resurrected as WireShare, and as of 2019, WireShare, Morpheus and Mutella are still available.

How Gnutella Works
Each client in a Gnutella network is also a server, and the term "servent" is the combination of server and client. When starting for the first time, each Gnutella servent requires the IP address of at least one other servent, which it can obtain from a default list of UDP host caches (UHCs) or GWebcaches. UHCs crawl the Internet looking for Gnutella hosts (servents), and GWebcache servers are updated by the Gnutella hosts themselves.

Once a servent contacts another servent, that servent tries to contact the nodes it is aware of, and the request gets forwarded throughout the Gnutella network until the request times out. High-speed, non-firewalled servents can become "ultrapeers," which can connect to 32 other ultrapeers and 30 regular servents. The ultrapeers maintain key words of the files in the servents and forward them only requests for files they are likely to have. See peer-to-peer network.
References in periodicals archive ?
While the random overlay of Gnutella over AODV [8] has the following limitations.
Sikdar, "Modeling malware propagation in Gnutella type peer-to-peer networks," in Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, IPDPS 2006, Greece, April 2006.
Gnutella was considered as the second main P2P network.
He uses the random waypoint mobility model with peer-to-peer protocol Gnutella and ad hoc routing protocol OLSR [16] in a network simulator.
Huberman, "Free riding on Gnutella," First Monday, vol.
While Napster was a closed-source application, Gnutella was an open-source protocol with corporate backing, thus limiting the targets of lawsuits (Kan, 2001).
In contrast, an unstructured P2P overlay network, such as Gnutella [27], does not have this connection relation.
While Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks such as Gnutella, eDonkey and eMule remain popular more sophisticated offenders have moved to the deep web however, taking advantage of the anonymity provided by the likes of Tor, which made the news recently when one of its largest and most infamous websites, (https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&ved=0CGUQFjAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ibtimes.co.uk%2Farticles%2F510876%2F20131002%2Fsilk-road-shut-down-fbi-dread-pirate.htm&ei=0oJeUuuiKorD0QXvgoG4Bw&usg=AFQjCNH-asspgTyWjL92y-qTDFQSFpfI0Q&sig2=dAAEUm23Rj8lxXtWLZ70lQ&bvm=bv.54176721,d.d2k) Silk Road, was shut down .
It has been shown that Gnutella content distribution follows zipf distribution [13].