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Related to Goatsuckers: Caprimulgidae
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Caprimulgiformes), an order of birds. It embraces three families: oilbirds (Steatornithidae; one species, the guácharo), frogmouths (Podargidae), and true nightjars (Caprimulgidae).

True nightjars are crepuscular and nocturnal birds, with long wings and tail; the soft plumage is colored in buff and brown tones. The bill is short, but the slash of the mouth is large (enlarged by the bristles along the edges of the mouth), facilitating the capture of insects. The eyes are large. The legs are short; goatsuckers cannot grasp branches with their digits and perch lengthwise along the branch. Their flight is noiseless. They do not build nests; they usually deposit two eggs in a pit in the earth. When hatched, the nestlings are covered with a dense down and are able to see.

Goatsuckers are distributed principally in the tropics (nonmigratory); only a few species inhabit the temperate zone (migratory). Two species of Caprimulgiformes (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii and Chordeiles acutipennis) that live in North America fall into a torpor in winter (their body temperature at that time drops from 41°C to 18°C). There are eight genera, comprising 72 species. The USSR has three species: the nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), which is very widely distributed (in the east to Transbaikalia); the Indian nightjar (C. indicus), which inhabits the forests of southeastern Siberia and southern Primor’e; and the Egyptian nightjar (C. aegyptius), which inhabits the scrub deserts of Middle Asia.

The nightjar’s body length is 26–28 cm, and its weight is 75–100 g. The plumage is sandy-gray with dark varicolored longitudinal markings. In the north it settles along the forest edges (most often pine forests) and in cleared glades; in the south, in deserts and on the slopes of treeless mountains. There are two eggs in a clutch; the brood period is 18 days. Its diet, as in other goatsuckers, consists of insects (butterflies, beetles), which it catches mainly in flight, and, more rarely, on the ground. It is a beneficial bird that exterminates harmful forest insects.


Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 1. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1951.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
New York's goatsuckers lay their typical clutch of two oval, mottled eggs on bare ground or leaf litter: amidst sand and pebbles for nighthawks, and on leaves and twigs for nightjars.
But due to the concern and involvement of factory workers, the nighthawk successfully fledged both young, leading Suomala to note: "The chicks only survived because people took interest and cared." It struck me that this factory experience epitomizes the predicament which goatsuckers generally face: in an increasingly human-dominated world, it is clear that if these fascinating species are to survive in the decades and centuries to come, it will only be because enough people took interest, became concerned, and acted upon that concern.
In addition to common nighthawks, whip-poor-wills and chuck-will's-widows, five other species of goatsuckers live in North America: the lesser and Antillean nighthawks, buff-collared nightjar, common pauraque, and the common poorwill, one of only a handful of birds known to go into torpor, a state akin to mammalian hibernation.
It was several such southbound birds foraging for insects on a North Fork farm on a late September afternoon that completed the year's goatsucker trifecta for me.
All three goatsucker species are declining, both in New York State and throughout much of their range.
Tropical goatsuckers tend to lead sedentary lives, given the year-round abundance of food in their insect-ridden haunts.
The large eyes of goatsuckers, on the other hand, are adapted for enhanced night vision, and the birds apparently can discriminate between different kinds of insects silhouetted against twilight or a moonlit sky.
Goatsuckers have been a fertile field of research for Brigham and his students.
They belong to a worldwide family with a scientific name, Caprimulgidae, that means "goatsucker." Superstitious goat- herds in ancient Greece saw night birds fluttering open-mouthed around their livestock and believed the birds came out at dark to drink milk from the mammals' teats.