Golden Bull


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Golden Bull,

term translated from the Latin bulla aurea and generally referring to a bull (edict) with a golden seal. Golden bulls were promulgated by medieval Byzantine rulers and by Western European monarchs, for example, by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (Golden Bull of 1213) and by King Andrew IIAndrew II,
d. 1235, king of Hungary (1205–35), son of Bela III. He continued his predecessors' policy of transferring crown lands to the magnates, and the lesser nobles forced him to issue the Golden Bull (1222), which served as a charter of feudal privilege.
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 of Hungary (Golden Bull of 1222). However, the term is most frequently used in reference to the Golden Bull of 1356, issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IVCharles IV,
1316–78, Holy Roman emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and king of Bohemia (1346–78). The son of John of Luxemburg, Charles was educated at the French court and fought the English at Crécy, where his father's heroic death made
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. Mindful of the dissension caused by the disputed imperial election of his predecessor, Louis IV, Charles IV devised a series of detailed procedural regulations intended to prevent similar controversies. The measures were discussed and approved at the imperial diets of Nuremberg and Metz (1355–56). The "king of the Romans" was thereafter to be elected only by the majority vote of seven electoral princes (see electorselectors,
in the history of the Holy Roman Empire, the princes who had the right to elect the German kings or, more exactly, the kings of the Romans (Holy Roman emperors).
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). By omitting any mention of the papacy, the document virtually nullified papal claims to intervene in or to confirm an election. The electoral right was to descend by male primogeniture in the henceforth indivisible lay electorates (except in Bohemia, where the crown was elective). The Golden Bull sanctioned a long-developing trend against a centralized empire and gave the electors a constitutional basis on which to consolidate their holdings into sovereign states. It granted them regalian rights over coinage, mining, and the judiciary; conspiracy against them was to be considered lese-majesty. In codifying the princes' independence of imperial jurisdiction, the Golden Bull of 1356 set the constitutional form of the Holy Roman Empire, which with but a few modifications, survived until the empire's dissolution in 1806.
References in periodicals archive ?
To understand Voltaire's intent in making this memorable epigram, the passage must be examined in the setting of the Essai sur les Moeurs et I'Esprit des Nations, where it appears at the end of Chapter 70, itself concerned with the events leading up to the Golden Bull of 1356.
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Golden Bull winners 2010 Boris Johnson -'A cyclised city' of 'pioneers' NHS Lanarkshire -"These are cascaded to senior staff across the organisation through to frontline staff via a structured mechanism to facilitate ownership of data.
British Airways also received a Golden Bull Award, for the following paragraph, unreadable not only for its content but also for its all-cap form:
Crapo with Watchdogs of the Treasury Golden Bull Dog Award
A San Fernando Valley girl, Susan's parents and grandparents opened and ran The Unique Delicatessen in Encino for a number of years, and later her mother ran The Golden Bull steak house, an early venue for Susan's paintings.
Through its wholly owned subsidiary, Golden Bull Resources, the Company also has highly prospective properties within the Committee Bay Greenstone Belt, Canada.
ITH Charities Partnership with FACE of HARVEST, (501 (c) 3 Corps) ITH Charities partners with FACE of HARVEST (based in California) to host a fundraising event, Give Back Malawi, in Gaithersburg, Maryland, at the Golden Bull Grand Cafe on June 11th, 2016.
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It has been shortlisted by the Plain English Campaign for a Golden Bull, which aims to name and shame the worst offenders.
PERCHED on top of a tiny diamond, mounted on the head of a matchstick this could be the smallest golden bull sculpture in the world.
THEY call themselves Golden Bull Kastoori Capsules and, yes, they're bull of a very special sort.