Gulf of California

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California, Gulf of,

or

Sea of Cortés,

arm of the Pacific Ocean, c.700 mi (1,130 km) long and 50 to 130 mi (80–209 km) wide, NW Mexico; separates Baja CaliforniaBaja California
or Lower California,
peninsula, c.760 mi (1,220 km) long and from 30 to 150 mi (48–241 km) wide, NW Mexico, separating the Gulf of California from the Pacific Ocean. The peninsula is divided at lat.
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 from the Mexican mainland. The gulf is part of a depression in the earth's surface that extends inland to the Coachella Valley, S Calif. The Imperial ValleyImperial Valley,
fertile region in the Colorado Desert, SE Calif., extending S into NW Mexico. Once part of the Gulf of California, most of the region is below sea level; its lowest point is −232 ft (−71 m) at the southern shore of the Salton Sea. Receiving only c.
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 and the Salton SeaSalton Sea
, saline lake, 370 sq mi (958 sq km), northern part of the Imperial Valley, SE Calif.; 232 ft (71 m) below sea level. Salton Sea was formed as the Colorado River delta grew across the Gulf of California, severing the river's northern part.
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, once part of the gulf, have been cut off from it by the growth of the ColoradoColorado
. 1 Great river of the SW United States, 1,450 mi (2,334 km) long, rising in the Rocky Mts. of N Colo., and flowing generally SW through Colo., Utah, Ariz., between Nev. and Ariz., and Ariz. and Calif.
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 River delta. The gulf deepens from north to south; its greatest depth is c.8,500 ft (2,590 m). The coastline is irregular, with numerous islands; Tiburon, inhabited by aboriginal tribes, is the largest. Storms and tidal currents hinder navigation in the gulf. Once a rich commercial and sport fishing ground, the gulf now suffers from overfishing. The region is a developing tourist center; La Paz, Guaymas, and Mazatlán are major cities. The area was first explored in 1538 by the Spaniard Francisco de UlloaUlloa, Francisco de
, d. c.1540, Spanish explorer in Mexico. Against the orders of Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza, Hernán Cortés sent Ulloa to explore the Gulf of California. In 1538–39 he sailed to the head of the gulf, thus proving that lower California was a peninsula.
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.

California, Gulf of

 

a gulf of the Pacific Ocean along the western coast of North America. It is separated from the ocean by the peninsula of Lower California and is in effect a semi-enclosed sea. Length, 1, 240 km; maximum width, 220 km; area, 177, 000 sq km; average depth, 818 m. Depths increase from the head (34 m) to the mouth (3, 292 m, the greatest depth of the gulf)- There are many islands, the largest of which are Tiburon and Angel de la Guarda. The climate is subtropical. Surface currents circulate counterclockwise. Winter temperatures vary from 15°C in the northwest to 21°C in the southeast, and in the summer they rise to 28°C. The salinity of the water is 35.1-35.5 parts per thousand in the north (near the mouth of the Colorado River), diminishing to 30 parts per thousand. Tides are irregular and occur twice daily (up to 2.9 m). Fish in the Gulf of California include tuna, flounder, mackerel, and sea bass. Accumulations of Ciliata infusoria cause tinting of the water in various shades of red. The principal port is Guaymas (Mexico).

References in periodicals archive ?
2013) han encontrado diversas especies de condrictios en sitios a gran profundidad donde la temperatura es similar a la del alto Golfo, lo que sugiere una posible conectividad con las poblaciones fuera del Golfo de California.
Estres de la comunidad ictica en la pesca de arrastre de camaron en el norte del golfo de California.
Asimismo, es necesario tener en cuenta que el puerto de San Felipe, en el municipio de Mexicali, se encuentra en los limites de la Reserva de la Biosfera Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado (vease figura 1).
Existen aproximadamente 56 especies de aves marinas en el Golfo de California, de las cuales 18 se reproducen en las islas, 26 de ellas son migratorias, 10 son residentes y seis de ellas son cuasiendemicas.
Ademas, estas zonas pueden presentarse en diferentes latitudes en donde a su vez persisten diferentes temperaturas; por ejemplo, existe un area de desove en las costas de California en donde se ha encontrado abundancia de huevos y larvas a temperaturas de 13-15[grados]C; en el sur de Baja California se localiza otra area de desove en donde huevos y larvas prosperan en temperaturas de 17-21[grados]C, mientras que en el Golfo de California se les encuentra en temperaturas de 22-25[grados]C (LluchBelda et al.
Durante este periodo, la costa de Jalisco se encuentra bajo la influencia de la adveccion de la Corriente de California, asi como de la corriente superficial que sale del Golfo de California (Filonov et al.
Es considerada una especie nativa de tres ecosistemas: Corriente de California, Golfo de California y Pacifico central de America (Eschmeyer et al.
Distribucion: Extremo norte del Golfo de California (Keen 1971) hasta el sur de Bahia Ballena, Costa Rica (Cruz 1996).
Sierra Las Pintas es un complejo de baja altitud (500 msnm) que colinda con la planicie costera del Alto Golfo de California.
Botanico norteamericano y participante de la Expedicion al Golfo de California patrocinada por la Academia de Ciencias de California en 1921.
La iniciativa de instalacion de escalas nauticas encabezada por Fonatur enfrento mucha resistencia por parte de actores relacionados con la conservacion ambiental y el desarrollo sustentable del golfo de California.
Peces de la fauna de acompanamiento en la pesca industrial de camaron en el Golfo de California, Mexico.