The excerpt he quotes therefore firmly associates the goliards with metrical and rhythmical compositions, especially invectionem ridmicam (rhythmical invective), not to mention the Carmina Burana, one of whose poems Giraldus cites along with the Archpoet's confessio golie.
In this, the third of his series dealing with the medieval secular Latin lyric, Bryan Gillingham addresses various problems, including the meaning and etymology of the word "goliard" and the social milieu of the authors of the repertory we call "goliardic." (I shall use these terms henceforth on the understanding that they designate the kind of repertory seen in the Carmina Burana, where sacred and distinctly secular compositions are mingled.)
The addition of gula and other popular etymologies to the name was merely in response to the goliard's pose of affecting debauchery of various kinds.
Such associations extend the Arlecchino's links backward to medieval extempore players and goliards
in Italy and France, while they illuminate commedia's continuing development during the mid sixteenth century in carnival, rustic farces, and dialect theater with lured types.
Significantly, there is no mention of the goliards
either in this article or in the index to the book.
In the Sorbonne the students held debates in Latin; there were even goliards
. The attrapes of Montmartre were very popular in Paris.
The goliards described themselves as followers of the legendary Bishop Golias; they were renegade clerics of no fixed abode who were chiefly interested in riotous living.
A remarkable collection of the goliards' Latin poems and songs in praise of wine and riotous living was published in the late 19th century under the title Carmina Burana, taken from the 13th-century manuscript of that title at Munich.