Age-associated remodeling of thymopoiesis: role for gonadal hormones
and catecholamines Neuroimmunomodulation 2008; 15: 290-322.
It is triggered by the activation of the reproductive axis, which is responsible for the development of reproductive capability, the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics, and the increase in gonadal hormones
Sex differences in anxiety disorders: Interactions between fear, stress, and gonadal hormones
. Horm Behav.
 Thus, this study is an attempt to observe the effect of gonadal hormones
on auditory and VRT across various phases of menstrual cycle.
Endogenous gonadal hormones
modulate behavioral and neurochemical responses to acute and chronic cocaine administration.
(24,25) The gonadotropins also stimulate the production of gonadal hormones
(androgens, estrogens, progestagens, and inhibin) that then exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and consequently inhibit GnRH secretion.
[5,6] Gonadal hormones
are also known to have an effect on sexual differentiation of the brain.
Gender differences in pathophysiological changes seem to be based on gonadal hormones
, such as testosterone and estrogen.
Doughtery (1952, (3)) had studied the effect of hormones on thymus, where he had shown adrenal and gonadal hormones
produced atrophy of thymus.
Among all these actors, gonadal hormones
have repeatedly been suggested to play a prominent role.
Sex differences in pain and analgesia: the role of gonadal hormones
. European Journal ofPain, v.
The purpose of this study was to determine the basal serum levels of the hypophysial, thyroidal, adrenal, and gonadal hormones
in patients with BD and evaluate the correlation between BD and disease activity.