It is hypothesized that the association, section Pharmacosycea, subsection Petenenses evolved in the Southern Hemisphere as assumed by Murray (1985) for Agaoninae, before the Gondwanan
break (Weiblen, 2002) and that the Agaoninae ancestor could had been a Hexapus-like wasp; other way, the author hypothesizes that there had been an unknown ancestral Agaoninae-Ficus association, that originated in Eastern Gondwana, in agreement with Berg and Corner (2005); and that subgenus Pharmacosycea connects with an even earlier stock of Ficus, and suggested by Corner (1967).
MS Harvey, JA Chappill, AR Main and BY Main 1996b 'The Western Australian biota as Gondwanan
heritage--a review' in SD Hopper, JA Chappill, MS Harvey and AS George (eds), Gondwanan
heritage: past, present and future of the Western Australian biota, Surrey Beatty and Sons in association with Australian Systematic Botany Society and Kings Park and Botanic Garden, Western Australia, Chipping Norton, NSW.
1999) implies that the origin of most of their genera--a lower taxonomic level--will be later and therefore post-dates Gondwanan
The sun moths (family Castniidae) are a group of day-flying moths with a Gondwanan
distribution (Common 1990).
4) rank among the very rare members of this Gondwanan
family in the Laurasian continents (Rage, 1996; LaDuke et al.
Hypotheses: We anticipate multiple origins of lichenicolous fungi, partial parallel cladogenesis, and Gondwanan
origin for the Cladoniaceae, but current patterns of distribution are probably partly explained by recent dispersal.
50) Whether Old World hepadnaviruses could have been taken to today's South America by the natural barriers formed by the separation of the sub-continent from the Gondwanan
supercontinent about 100 million years ago (28) is something that remains unknown.
After the fragmentation of supercontinent Pangaea and the subsequent split of the Laurasian and Gondwanan
landmasses, certain groups of amphibians were able to "hitch a ride" from one continent to another.
Permo-Carboniferous (250 million years to 350 million years ago) Gondwanan
sediments are well-distributed in the Indian subcontinent, South Africa, Australia, Antarctica and South America, bearing proof that the southern continents were once united in the form of Gondwanaland.
However, many studies of endemic lineages from different Australasian subregions have dated these lineages to ancient Gondwanan
ancestors, which appear to have been separated subsequently by vicariance events (e.
Global biogeography of scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae): evidence for Gondwanan
vicariance and limited transoceanic dispersal.
Aliphatic and aromatic biomarkers from Gondwanan
sediments of Late Ordovician to Early Devonian age: An early terrestrialization approach.