First record of the invasive stinging medusa Gonionemus vertens in the southern hemisphere (Mar del Plata, Argentina)
In this paper we present the finding of another invasive hydromedusa, Gonionemus vertens Agassiz, 1862 (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae), found for the first time in the southern hemisphere.
These characteristics agree with previous descriptions of the species Gonionemus vertens Agassiz, 1862 (Arai & Brinckmann-Voss, 1980; Russell, 1953) (Fig.
Gonionemus vertens is distributed in very shallow temperate waters of the northern hemisphere (Pacific, Atlantic and Mediterranean), but it is absent from arctic and tropical zones (Edwards, 1976; Arai & Brinckmann-Voss, 1980).
Poisoning by the medusa Gonionemus vertens in the Sea of Japan.
208) inferred holds the "capsule at the cell surface until discharge." Rather, we interpret them as functionally analogous to the fibrous collar described by West-fall (1970) in the neck region of operculate nematocysts in the hydromedusan Gonionemus vertens.
The nematocyte complex in a hydromedusan, Gonionemus vertens. Z.