Material studied: Northern Coast, Emissario Beach, on internal beach rock bank, 15th November 1995, 3 m depth, thirteen colonies, 3-4 mm high, with gonophores [N 1795]; Guarajuba Beach, on the sponge Dysidea variabilis from the shallow bank reef, 10th April 1996, 19 m depth, three colonies, gonophores not seen [N 1796].
Young ones light brown, elongated, 650-712 [micron]m long, pedicel of 3-4 rings, usually on stolon, but sometimes on erect shoot in axil; wide in centre, about 310 [micron]m in diamenter, and sometimes at terminal end, tapering below, 230 [micron]m wide; gonophores with 1 or 2 rows of developing medusae.
Santa Catarina, Bombinhas, Bombas Beach (27.131[degrees]S 48.514[degrees]W, 2 m, 3.xii.2006)--MZUSP4242, in formaldehyde 4%, without gonophores
, on rock and Sargassum sp.; MZUSP4260, in ethanol 92.8%, without gonophores
, on rock; MZUSP4263, in ethanol 92.8%, with gonophores
, on rock; MZUSP4266, in formaldehyde 4%, with gonophores
, on rock and Sargassum sp.
Their relatively large polyps have been excellent subjects for biological studies in areas such as regeneration (Barth, 1940; Tardent and Eymann, 1958), early development of the gonophores (Brauer, 1891; Berrill, 1952; Nagao, 1965), growth in culture (Mackie, 1966), field ecology (Hughes, 1983; Ostman et al., 1995), physiology (Josephson and Mackie, 1965; Neufeld et al., 1978; Michel and Case, 1986), and taxonomy (Tardent, 1980; Petersen, 1990).
Larval age was defined as the period following liberation from the maternal gonophores. During microscopic observations of behavior, larvae were kept at a temperature of 19 [+ or -] 1 [degrees]C.