Gordium


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Gordium

(gôr`dēəm), ancient city of Asia Minor, in PhrygiaPhrygia
, ancient region, central Asia Minor (now central Turkey). The Phrygians, who settled here c.1200 B.C., came from the Balkans and apparently spoke an Indo-European language.
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 and later GalatiaGalatia
[Gr.,=Gaul], ancient territory of central Asia Minor, in present Turkey (around modern Ankara). It was so called from its inhabitants, the Gauls, who invaded from the west and conquered it in the 3d cent. B.C.
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, now in Turkey, 50 mi (80 km) SW of Ankara. It was the capital of Phrygia from c.1000 to 800 B.C. Excavations conducted since 1950 have revealed Hittite, Phrygian, Persian, Gallo-Grecian, and Greco-Roman remains. GordiusGordius
, in Greek mythology, king of Phrygia. An oracle had told the Phrygians that the king who would put an end to their troubles was approaching in an oxcart, and, thus, when Gordius, a peasant, appeared in his wagon, he was hailed king.
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 was the legendary founder of the city, and it was here that Alexander the Great is said to have cut the Gordian knot. It is also known as Gordion.

Gordium

 

(also Gordion), ancient capital of Phrygia, on the right bank of the Sangarius River, near the modern village of Pebi in Turkey.

The first excavations were conducted in 1900 and subsequent excavations, after 1951. Powerful defensive walls were unearthed (stone and adobe) as well as dwellings with a large quantity of domestic artifacts and an extensive necropolis with numerous objects. Judging from the nature of the burials and finds, the barrows of Gordium resemble those of the ancient Scythians. Finds date mostly from the eighth to the fifth century B.C. In the seventh century B.C., Gordium was largely destroyed by the Cimmerians.

REFERENCES

Young, R. S., A. W. Van Buren, and G. R. Edwards. “Gordion Excavations—Preliminary Reports. . . .” American Journal of Archaeology, 1955, vol. 59, no. 1; 1956, vol. 60, no. 3; 1957, vol. 61, no. 4; 1958, vol. 62, no. 2; 1959, vol. 63, no. 3: 1960, vol 64, no. 3.
Young, R. S. “Gordion on the Royal Road.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1963, v. 107. no. 4.
References in periodicals archive ?
The legend dates to 333 BC when Alexander the Great marched into the city of Gordium in modern-day Turkey.
This comes from a legend about Alexander the Great reaching the city of Gordium, whose ancient founder, Gordius, had left behind a chariot tied to a pole by means of a complicated knot.
He then dedicated his chariot to Zeus in the city Gordium and fastened it to a column with a large, complicated knot that became known as the Gordian knot.
Alexander the Great invaded Asia and, having arrived at Gordium where the oxcart was tied up, he also attempted to untie the legendary Gordian knot after hearing the prediction of the oracle.
A past president of Oberlin College and the Aspen Institute, he began his career in classical archaeology, excavating at Gordium in modern Turkey and mapping the Persian Royal Road.
(2) In Slovene, the adjective gordijski is derived from the place name Gordij (= Gordium), as opposed to English, where Gordian is derived from the male name Gordius.
Alexander, in his conquest of Asia, passed by Gordium; and as he wished to leave nothing undone, which might inspire his soldiers with courage, and make his enemies believe that he was born to conquer Asia, he cut the knot with his sword; and from that circumstance asserted that the oracle was really fulfilled, and that his claims to universal empire were fully justified" (Bibliotheca classica, s.v.
Mythology relates that Alexander the Great, wintering in the Asia Minor city of Gordium in the 4th century BC, took up the challenge of loosening the legendary Gordian knot, which had resisted untying, by slicing it in half with a stroke of his sword.
Alexander advanced to Gordium in the spring of 333 and accepted the oracular challenge by slashing through the famous knot with his sword to claim that he was destined to be the 'lord of Asia' (A.
[In the city of Gordium, Alexander was laid low by a mysterious illness.] Alexander's attendants were afraid to try any remedies because, if their remedy failed and Alexander died, the Macedonians might blame the physician.
(33) Basil of Caesarea, In Gordium martyrem, PG 31, col.