Gorky Automotive Plant

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gorky Automotive Plant


(in Russian, Gor’kovskii avtomobil’nyi zavod; GAZ), one of the largest enterprises of the USSR’s automotive industry; produces passenger cars and trucks. The foundation was laid on May 2, 1930; the plant went into operation on Jan. 1, 1932, and began turning out 1.5-ton GAZ-AA trucks and GAZ-A passenger cars. During the prewar years the plant also produced GAZ-AAA trucks, GAZ-61 trucks with two driving axles, gas producer vehicles, tractors, GAZ-1 passenger cars, and the Pikap (pickup). Up to 1941 the plant produced a total of 18 truck and passenger-car models.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941–15) the Gorky Automotive Plant filled orders for the front. After the war it produced GAZ-51 and GAZ-63 trucks and Pobeda, GAZ-12, and GAZ-69 passenger cars. Production of the Volga passenger car, which replaced the Pobeda, began in 1956; the Chaika began to be produced in 1959. Since 1966 the automotive plant’s basic truck models have been the GAZ-53, GAZ-66 (which was awarded the State Badge of Quality in 1969), and their modifications. Instead of the old models of passenger cars, production was begun in 1969 on the faster and more comfortable GAZ-24.

The Gorky Automotive Plant utilizes assembly-line mass production, along with highly developed intraplant specialization. Its output has systematically increased. During the period from 1971 to 1975 the overall production output will be increased by 50 percent, and the production of motor vehicles will be increased by 30.2 percent.

During the war years the plant was awarded the traveling Red Banner of the State Committee for Defense, which has been given to its personnel permanently. It has also been awarded two Orders of Lenin (1941 and 1971), the Order of the Red Banner (1944), and the Order of the Patriotic War First Class (1945).


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.