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see Nizhny NovgorodNizhny Novgorod
, formerly Gorky
or Gorki,
city (1989 pop. 1,438,000), capital of Nizhny Novgorod region and the administrative center of the Volga federal district, E European Russia, on the Volga and Oka rivers.
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, Russia.


(gôr`kē) or

Gorky Leninskoye

(lyĕ`nyĭnskəyə), suburb of Moscow, central European Russia. The country home of Lenin, who died there, is now a memorial museum.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(until 1932, Nizhny Novgorod), a city; center of Gorky Oblast, RSFSR. Located at the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers. Area, 334 sq km (until the October Revolution, 32 sq km. It is a major transportation junction, with six rail lines (three of which are main lines), a river port, and an airport. It is the third largest city in the RSFSR (after Moscow and Leningrad). Population, 1,189,000 (1971; 107,000 in 1916; 644,000 in 1939; and 941,000 in 1959). It was renamed in connection with the 40th anniversary of M. Gorky’s literary career; Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod.

Historical information Gorky was founded in 1221 by the Vladimir prince Iurii Vsevolodovich and was called Novgorod Nizhny. In 1350 it became the capital of the Suzdal’-Nizhny Novgorod Principality. Because of its advantageous geographic position at the confluence of the Oka and Volga, Nizhny Novgorod became a major trade and cultural center; chronicles were written in the Pecherskii Monastery (founded 1328–30); in 1377, the monk Lavrentii made a catalog of chronicles for Grand Prince Dmitrii (the so-called Lavrentii Chronicle). At first the city was surrounded by oaken walls, but by 1374 a stone citadel was already under construction.

In 1392, under Vasilii I, Nizhny Novgorod was annexed to Moscow, and it soon became a Russian stronghold in the struggle against the Kazan Khanate. With this goal, under Vasilii III a citadel was built under the direction of Petr Friazin; it has been preserved to the present day. The fortress enabled the inhabitants of Nizhny Novgorod to repulse Tatar attacks in 1520 and 1536. In 1611 and 1612, Nizhny Novgorod was the center for the formation of K. Minin’s and D. Pozharskii’s people’s militia against the Polish invaders.

In the 19th century, Nizhny Novgorod had not only commercial but also industrial significance. The flour-milling industry and production associated with Volga shipping grew. The transfer of the Makar’ev Fair to Nizhny Novgorod in 1817, the construction of the Sormovo Shipbuilding Plant in 1849, and the construction of a railroad to Moscow in 1862 encouraged the development of the city. Volga steamboat traffic began to develop with particular intensity in the mid-19th century: in 1854, 15 steamboats were plying the Volga; in 1870, about 350; and in 1890, more than 1,000.

The first labor groups formed in the 1880’s and in 1891 a Marxist group was formed at the Kurbatov Plant. In 1894, V. I. Lenin read his essay on the book The Fate of Capitalism in Russia by V. V. (the populist V. P. Vorontsov) to the Nizhny Novgorod Marxist group. In 1901 the Nizhny Novgorod Social Democratic committee was formed. The first workers’ May Day meeting was held in 1895 (the 1902 May Day meetingis described in M. Gorky’s novel Mother)

The workers of Nizhny Novgorod took an active part in the Revolution of 1905–07, the October Socialist Revolution of 1917, and the Civil War of 1918–20. In 1905 the city’s workers took part in the October All-Russian Political Strike, which in December 1905 became an armed uprising in Sormovo (it was quelled by troops on Dec. 18, 1905). Soviet power was established in the city on Oct. 28 (Nov. 10), 1917. During the Civil War of 1918–20 the city was the base of the Volga Military Flotilla.

Over the years of socialist construction, Gorky has become one of the country’s major industrial and cultural centers. During the first five-year plan (1928–32), the largest automotive plant in the country was built in Gorky and the Krasnoe Sormovo plant was reconstructed. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45, Gorky was one of the most important arsenals of the Soviet Army.

Nizhny Novgorod was the birthplace of I. P. Kulibin, N. I. Lobachevskii, N. A. Dobroliubov, M. A. Balakirev, M. Gorky, and Ia. M. Sverdlov. The city was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1970.

Economic geography. During the years of Soviet power, Gorky’s industrial production has increased almost 500-fold. Gorky has become one of the largest machine-building centers in the USSR and holds first place in transportation machine building (motor-vehicle construction and shipbuilding). The largest machine-building enterprise is the Gorky Automotive Plant, which is connected with several other enterprises in the city, including the Krasnaia Etna plant (the USSR’s largest supplier of pinning and riveting products) and factories for specialized vehicles (vans, trailer stores, and so on), gearboxes, and punches, press forms, and other products. The Krasnoe Sormovo plant is the main shipbuilding base for the Volga fleet. The Dvigatel’ Revoliutsii plant is a major producer of marine diesels and the only plant in the country that produces automatic gas compressors for gas mains. Other plants include the S. Ordzhonikidze Aviation Plant; plants producing milling machines (Stankozavod), milling and grain-elevator equipment, and peat cutters; and the V. I. Lenin Television Plant (Chaika televisions). Machine building accounts for 70 percent of Gorky’s industrial production. The enterprises in the fields of converter metallurgy, the chemical industry (a petroleum and oil plant and the Orgsintez plant), woodworking, and building materials are significant. The food industry and light industry are well developed: milling, meat, and dairy combines; macaroni and confectionery factories; a brewery and a plant producing sparkling wine; a flax-weaving combine; and enterprises producing knit socks, leather footwear, and garments.

Gorky’s energy base consists of the Gorky Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Volga River (near the city of Zavolzh’e), the Balakhna State Regional Electric Power Plant, and heat and electric power plants. There are gas pipelines from Saratov and Minnibaev (Tatar ASSR) and an oil pipeline from Al’met’evsk.

The Oka River divides Gorky into two parts—the eastern part (on the right banks of the Oka and Volga), which is elevated (the northwestern extremity of the Volga Upland— the Diatlov Hills) and is usually called the uplands, and the western part (on the left bank of the Oka and the right bank of the Volga), which is low-lying and is known as the part across the river. The western part is a transportation junction and the main industrial section of Gorky, as well as the main part of the city with regard to area and population (it includes five of the eight city raions—Kanavinskii, Leninskii, Avtoza-vodskii, Moskovskii, and Sormovskii). The eastern part has three raions: Nizhny Novgorod (mostly the territory of old Nizhny Novgorod), Sovetskii, and Priokskii.


Architecture. Architectural monuments of the 16th through early 18th centuries include the citadel (fortified walls with towers, 1500 and 1508–11) and the Arkhangel’skii Cathedral (1624–31, architects L. and A. Vozoulin, on the site of an old 13th-century cathedral); the Blagoveshchenskii Monastery, with a cathedral (1649) and the Uspenskaia Church (1678), and the Pecherskii Monastery, with the Voznesenskii Cathedral (1632, A. Vozoulin) and two polygonal churches (1642–15 and 1648); the Uspenskaia Church on Il’inskaia Hill (1672–1715); churches in the “Stroganov style,” with rich decorative embellishments on the facades—the Smolenskaia (1694–97) and Rozhdestvenskaia (1719); and the Pushnikov house (17th century).

After 1770, the eastern part of Gorky acquired a radial-ring plan and was built up, first with buildings in the style of classicism (the former Dvorianskoe Sobranie, 1826) and later with eclectic and stylized buildings (the drama theater, 1896, architect V. A. Shreter; the State Bank, 1913, V. A. Pokrov-skii; and the Sirotkin house, now the Art Museum, 1913, the Vesnin brothers). At present, Gorky is being built up according to general plans (the most recent was in 1966; architect A. I. Kuznetsov and others). The House of Soviets (1930’s, architect A. Z. Grinberg), a circus (1964), a river port (1964) and railroad station (1965 reconstructed), an airport (1965), and a sports complex (1965) have been built. In connection with the construction and reconstruction of major industrial facilities (including the motor-vehicle plant, since 1934, architect A. S. Fisenko and others), residential complexes with well-planned amenities and services and with green areas—Avtozavodskii and Sormovskii—have grown up on the former sites of dirty hovels and flophouses. Residential construction is continuing in these areas, as well as in the old center of the city. The mikroraions (neighborhood units) of Servernyi Poselok (architect G. I. Kavun and others), Lapshikha (architects V. V. Baulina and I. Khairullin), and Sovetskii Raion (architects Iu. N. Bubnov, V. V. Baulina, S. S. Timofeev, and others) are being built. The territory on the left bank of the Oka is being built up intensively.

The new center of Gorky is planned as a system of architectural ensembles on both banks of the Oka. On the left bank, the embankment has been reconstructed and a square with a monument to V. I. Lenin (1970, sculptor Iu. G. Nero-da, architects V. V. Voronkov and Iu. N. Voskresenskii) has been laid out. There are monuments to V. P. Chkalov (1940, sculptor P. A. Mendelevich, architect V. S. Andreev) and Maxim Gorky (1952, sculptor V. I. Mukhina).


Cultural construction. Before the October Revolution there were 28 general-educational schools (8,400 students) and four secondary specialized institutions (500 students) in Nizhny Novgorod; there were no institutions of higher learning. In the 1970–71 academic year 181,000 students attended Gorky’s 225 general-educational schools, 14,100 students were in the 34 vocational-technical schools, 38,700 in the 24 secondary specialized institutions, and 57,800 students in the ten institutions of higher learning (the University of Gorky, the Gorky Polytechnical Institute, the Gorky Institute for Water Transportation Engineers, and construction-engineering, agricultural, medical, and pedagogical institutes). In 1970 more than 53,000 children were attending preschool institutions.

As of Jan. 1, 1971, Gorky had 185 people’s libraries (8,910,000 copies of books and journals), 61 club institutions, five theaters (the M. Gorky Academic Drama Theater, the A. S. Pushkin Opera and Ballet Theater, the N. K. Krupskaia Young People’s Theater, a comedy theater, and a puppet theater), a philharmonic society, a circus, the Historical and Architectural Museum and Sanctuary, the M. Gorky Museum (and its affiliate, the Kashirin Cottage), the Art Museum, and 133 film projection installations.

The oblast newspapers Gor’kovskala Pravda (Gorky Prav-da; since 1917) and Leninskaia smena (Lenin’s Followers; since 1919) and the evening city paper Gor’kovskii rabochii (Gorky Worker; since 1932) are published. Gorky radio and television broadcasts on one radio and two television channels, including transmissions relayed from Moscow. There is a television center.

Public health. As of Jan. 1, 1969, Gorky had 275 medical institutions; there were 16,600 beds in inpatient hospitals (143.1 beds per 10,000 people). Seventeen dispensaries were functioning (eight antituberculosis, four oncological, and five dermatological-venereological), an ambulance station with 12 substations, five trauma centers, and 11 sanitation and epidemic-control stations; 86 nurseries (capacity 9,000) and 131 children’s centers (capacity 25,100) are in operation. There were 5,400 doctors working (one doctor per 215 people). There are research institutes of traumatology and orthopedics, epidemiology and microbiology, pediatrics, occupational diseases and hygiene, and dermatology and venereology.



Potapova, E. D. Revoliutsionnyi Nizhnii Novgorod: Kratkii putevoditel’. Gorky, 1959.
Eliseev, A. I. Rodnoi gorod: Pamiatnye mesta, sobytiia, imena Gorky, 1967.
Garanina, L. F. Gorod Gor’kii: Putevoditel’spravochnik. Gorky, 1964.
Znakom’tes’, gorod Gor’kii: Putevoditel’. Gorky, 1971.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Arshile . 1904--48, US abstract expressionist painter, born in Armenia. Influenced by Picasso and Mir?, his style is characterized by fluid lines and resonant colours
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
At the height of his career, Gorky's work excelled at cataloguing the possibilities of line and surface.
In his murals for the Newark Airport Administration Building, Gorky sent dotted lines across a biomorphic map of the United States (Texas is a mere uvula), playing on conventions of suggested routes.
Gorky was also good at masking his canvases, as he embedded his own artistic mythology of rural authenticity within formal techniques of concealing and revealing.