Goulart, João

Goulart, João

(zhwouN go͞olär`), 1918–76, president of Brazil (1961–64). A rancher and attorney, he served as minister of labor, industry, and commerce (1953–54) and as vice president (1956–61). His succession to the presidency upon the resignation of President Janio QuadrosQuadros, Jânio da Silva
, 1917–92, president of Brazil (Jan.–Aug., 1961). A schoolteacher and lawyer, he served as mayor of the city of (1953–54) and as governor of the state of São Paulo (1955–59).
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 (Aug., 1961) was opposed by the military because of his leftist leanings. He was finally permitted to take office with severely limited powers, but a referendum in Jan., 1963, restored his full presidential powers. Goulart's administration was beset with economic problems, and political opinion polarized over its leftist social reform and nationalization policies and increasing ties to Brazil's political left. Overthrown by rightist political and military coup (Apr., 1964), he fled and was given asylum in Uruguay.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Goulart, Joāo


(Juan). Born Mar. 1, 1918. in Sâo Borja. Political and governmental figure of Brazil. Lawyer by profession. Leader of the Brazilian Labor Party (BLP. in existence from 1945 to 1964).

Goulart is a follower of the nationalistic politics of G. Vargas. From 1946 to 1950 he was a delegate to the legislative assembly from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and from 1950 a delegate from BLP to the National Congress of Brazil. In 1953–54 he was minister of labor, industry, and commerce. From 1955 to 1961 he was vice-president, and from 1961 to 1964 president of Brazil.

The government of Goulart took a number of measures directed toward strengthening the national economy, such as limiting the export of gains on foreign capital invested in the country, establishing a government monopoly on the import of oil. and nationalizing uncultivated lands along arterial highways. He reestablished diplomatic relations with the USSR. (They had been severed in 1947.) Goulart was driven from power in April 1964 as the result of a reactionary military coup, and he emigrated to Uruguay.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.