Grace Hopper


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.
, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.

Bibliography

See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Grace Hopper

(person)
US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
References in periodicals archive ?
M2 PRESSWIRE-August 16, 2019-: Aditya Agashe will be speaking at the annual Grace Hopper Conference
Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, the namesake of the USS Hopper, once said: "A ship in port is safe; but that's not what ships are built for.
But it doesn't offer child care support, unlike the smaller Grace Hopper Celebration for Women in Computing conference, a fall event aimed at women in computer science.
33 Grace Hopper 1906-1992 Known as First Lady of Software.
Jackson has focused his efforts on recruiting and retaining diverse talent by partnering with national organisations like Association of Latino Professionals for America, Grace Hopper Conference, National Black MBA Association, National Association of Black Accountants.
Grace Hopper once said, "A ship in port is safe, but that's not what ships are built for." The same goes for us.
The name Grasshopper is a tribute to Grace Hopper, an early pioneer in computer programming.
"I want them to be recognised for their contributions," she says of female pioneers Ada Lovelace (mathematician), Grace Hopper (computer scientist) Stacy Horn (founder of the early social network Echo) and the many others whose endeavours and accomplishments she traces in her book.
A mathematician at Remington Rand, Grace Hopper recognized that human feeders were a bottleneck in the programming process.
Curious Grace Hopper was fascinated how things worked and grew up to be a computer scientist who in the Second World War wrote programs for the US to decode enemy messages.
Recruiters also regularly attend events like the Grace Hopper Conference and Tech Inclusion Fair.
Last November, President Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to the late Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, who invented the first compiler for a computer programming language, and Margaret Hamilton, who wrote code for the Apollo moon-landing program.