Grace Hopper


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Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.
, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.

Bibliography

See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

Grace Hopper

(person)
US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
References in periodicals archive ?
The instructors who are honored have demonstrated their commitment to teaching open source through a range of contributions, including: creating open source programs and courses at their institution; contributing materials to the growing open source curriculum base; or speaking about teaching open source at conferences like the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing and the SIGCSE (Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education) Technical Symposium.
Curious Grace Hopper was fascinated how things worked and grew up to be a computer scientist who in the Second World War wrote programs for the US to decode enemy messages.
Now we know different, but, as a result, a lot of the ideas that we think of as computer science were created by women like Grace Hopper.
Recruiters also regularly attend events like the Grace Hopper Conference and Tech Inclusion Fair.
Digital Association for Women to participate in the annual Grace Hopper
Last November, President Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to the late Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, who invented the first compiler for a computer programming language, and Margaret Hamilton, who wrote code for the Apollo moon-landing program.
Grace Hopper was a pioneer in the field of computer science and for more than four decades was at the forefront of computing development--in the U.
Other individuals who were recognized for their efforts were Elouise Cobell (posthumous), Maya Lin, Eduardo Padron, Bill and Melinda Gates, Newt Minow, Robert Redford, Lorne Michaels, Bring Springsteen, Vin Scully, Margaret Hamilton, Frank Gehry, Richard Garwin, Grace Hopper (posthumous) and Cicely Tyson.
But, with conferences like Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing, which promotes women in computer science, she found at least some companies are letting the "girl into the all boy's club.
Come to think of it, without compilers the world of computer science would have been at a severe disadvantage, if it weren't for the efforts of a genius named Grace Hopper.
Grace Hopper, who used the term to describe female programmers in the 1960s, when an attempt was made to define programming as "women's work.