Grade, Chaim

Grade, Chaim

(khīəm gräd`ə), 1910–82, Lithuanian novelist and poet. Grade, who wrote in Yiddish, became one of the prominant members of an experimental writers' group during the 1930s. After World War II he settled in the United States. His poetry focuses on Jewish survival after the HolocaustHolocaust
, name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. Romani (Gypsies), homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, the disabled, and others were also victims of the Holocaust.
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 and the spiritual struggles of Jews. His novels, most notably The Agunah (1961, tr. 1974) and The Yeshiva (2 vol., 1967–68, tr. 1976–77), are sophisticated analyses of philosophical and ethical issues in prewar Jewish Lithuania.
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