Graininess


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

graininess

[′grān·ē·nəs]
(graphic arts)
A mottled effect in film caused by clumping of the silver particles.

Graininess

 

the inhomogeneity of a uniformly exposed and developed photographic layer observed in an enlarged photographic image. At high magnification the form of the primary blackening structure (microgranular structure) may be seen; it consists of individual silver “grains” which are produced by the reducing action of the developer on the microscopic crystals of silver halide in the photographic material. The size of the grains is usually greater than the size of the silver halide crystals from which they are formed, reaching several microns (μ). The secondary blackening structure, which itself is called graininess (also macrograininess, granularity, or photographic noise), is observed at low magnifications (5–30 ×). It is produced by the superposition of the projections of individual silver grains located at different depths of the very thin (7–26 μ) developed layer, by the combined reduction of several randomly adhering microscopic crystals of silver halide, and sometimes by the accretion of silver grains in the process of their formation during developing.

Graininess lowers the quality of a photographic image by reducing the aesthetic impression of still pictures produced by printing from a small negative and in motion-picture images on a screen by making it more difficult (or even impossible) to recognize fine details in complicated pictures, particularly technical photographs, and by complicating the microphotometric processing of spectrograms, astronomical photographs, and other kinds of special photographic images. Graininess is primarily determined by the size of the microscopic silver halide crystals; it increases sharply with the degree of exposure and development of the layer. However, it usually is not highly dependent on the composition of the developer. Photographic images produced on low-sensitivity materials with the smallest possible exposures and a low degree of development are the least grainy.

IU. N. GOROKHOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The faceted drill (Table 1, f) has multiple layers of graininess like all previous drill bits (the advantages of this technique have been already described above) with faceted inner and outer perimeter instead the ring form.
The mapping [mu] : T [right arrow] [0, [infinity]) defined by [mu](t) := [sigma](t) - t is called the graininess of T.
Sensory graininess was highly correlated with particle size-related parameters.
Matthew Jensen's bright, restless lensing opts only for exaggerated graininess during a grimy lads' weekend in Hamburg; Clint Mansell's typically ambient scoring often cedes the spotlight to knowingly tacky pop selections.
Audacious, complex, and unflinching, Kushner's "prose has a poise and wariness and moral graininess that puts you in mind of weary-souled visionaries like Robert Stone and Joan Didion" (New York Times).
The meringue will finally get a sharp pointed stiff peak, when it holds its shape on the spoon and is glossy in appearance with no graininess.
The software smart-lab analyzes all data measured with the BYK-mac, including six-angle color, sparkle, and graininess. The measurements are taken in an online mode and can be instantly displayed after measurement or retrieved from the linked database (sdf-format for efficient data analysis of large data sets).
"The oak choice was made quite quickly -- we looked at a range of floors, but we have done a number of projects with white oak, and in this case we liked the product because of its matt and dull finish -- the graininess and rawness were also what we wanted to showcase."
An analysis of data on 107 patients undergoing heart scans found that radiation exposure was reduced by as much as 95 percent compared to the range of current machines, while the resulting images showed less blurriness, reduced graininess, and greater visibility of fine details.
The collaboration resulted in a portable device that does multi-angle color and texture characterization, color measurement, and evaluation of visual sparkle and graininess. All three companies benefited by acquiring new skills for reducing design and production costs, slashing time to market, and boosting sales.
Running a photograph through an Instagram filter often results in graininess, as it often removes some data from the image in order to give a blurred look, uses a "sharpen" tool that downgrades the image quality, or otherwise changes it in a way that leaves it less crisp than the original.
In the quilts, the monotone colour and the graininess of the images from the silk screen process depersonalise the images so that the viewer looks at each image as a universal symbol instead of a particular object, person or thing.