Congress has been more willing to work around the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
Act and the Budget Control Act of 2011 than the prohibition on Native American treaties, the Base Closure and Realignment, or (until recently) Senate Rule XXII.2.
Even so, this new, revised version of Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
also failed because its aggressive deficit-reduction targets proved to be well beyond the reach of Congress, especially as the economy slowed.
(4) I would not argue that Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
(GRH) was particularly successful in that its deficit targets were soon made more lenient and then the process collapsed when it proved impossible to meet the more lenient targets.
More recently, in response to Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
and other budget agreements aimed at balancing the budget and restraining spending, politicians created"rosy scenarios" and endless scorekeeping and accounting tricks, which White and Wildavsky label "fakery" (1989).
Similarly, supporters of Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
deficit reduction plan (GRH) believed the provision for across-the-board spending cuts would force Congress and the President to meet the annual deficit targets by its mere threatening presence.
Act is signed into law to control the U.S.
The latter problem afflicted the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
Act and was responsible for its demise.
Deficit Politics and Constitutional Government: The Impact of Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
. Public Budgeting & Finance 7.1 (Spring 1987): 83-103.
It was Republicans, in the wake of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
budget legislation, who voted to override the ruling of the chair and establish the precedent that the conference can do anything it wants.
Conservatives point to the failure of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
bill to ratchet down budget deficits as proof that the Congressional inertia which perpetuates deficit spending only can be broken by a constitutional amendment.
I am not categorically opposed to quasi-constitutional structural statutes or to Congress' efforts to tie itself to the mast, as it attempted to do in the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
Act.(28) Indeed, some of Congress, past efforts, such as the Impoundment Control Act of have usefully resolved some difficult conflicts between the President and Congress.
For a family of four, the debt burden was $54,260 in 1987 dollars.(1) Legislators have made several efforts, such as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
(GRH) Act of 1986 and the Budget Reconciliation Bill of 1993, to reduce deficits and debt.