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(1) In ancient Athens, a primary school for boys between the ages of seven and 12, providing instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
(2) In ancient Rome, a more advanced school (beyond the elementary school) for the children of patricians and equestrians, providing instruction in Latin grammar, Roman literature, and the Greek language.
(3) In 17th-century Russia, a school attached to a monastery; the grammar school taught Greek and Latin grammar and classical literature.
(4) In present-day Great Britain and some countries in the British Commonwealth, a secondary school of general education.
In Great Britain grammar schools made their appearance as early as the seventh century, but they became widespread only in the 12th century; these offered a classical education. By the 16th century these schools had evolved into class schools for the British aristocracy. By the education act of 1902 the grammar schools became part of the state school system. Only about 20 percent of those finishing elementary school enter the grammar school. The complete course of study covers a period of seven years, sometimes eight years, and the age of the pupils ranges from 11 to 18. However, almost 60 percent of the children, chiefly from families of limited means, leave school after completing a five-year program and passing examinations for a general certificate of so-called ordinary level education. The rest finish school, take so-called advanced level examinations, and enroll in institutions of higher learning without taking entrance examinations. For the first two or three years all children in the grammar school follow approximately the same curriculum, studying traditional secondary school subjects. Specialization begins in the fourth year. About 45 percent of school time is devoted to instruction in the humanities and 30 percent to the natural sciences and mathematics.
In 1970 there were 1,100 grammar schools with 632,000 pupils in Great Britain. In connection with the school reform under way in Great Britain the grammar schools in a number of areas are gradually being incorporated into the so-called comprehensive secondary school.
REFERENCESMizhuev, P. Londonskie shkoly i nachal’noe obrazovanie v Anglii. St. Petersburg, 1902.
Mizhuev. P. Sredniaia shkota v Anglii i ee reforma v 20 veke. St. Petersburg, 1914.
Aranskii, V. S., and V. P. Lapchinskaia. Sistema narodnogo obra-zovaniia v Anglii. Moscow, 1961.
Simon, B. Angliiskaia shkola i intellektual’nye testy. Moscow, 1958.(Translated from English.)
Davies, H. Culture and the Grammar School. London, .
Davis, R. The Grammar School. Harmondsworth, 1967.
V. P. LAPCHINSKAIA