Gramont, Agénor, prince de Bidache, duc de Guiche et de

Gramont, Agénor, prince de Bidache, duc de Guiche et de

(äzhānôr` prăNs` də bēdäsh` dük də gēsh ā də grämôN`), 1819–80, French diplomat. He served as plenipotentiary at Stuttgart (1852) and Turin (1853) and was ambassador to Rome (1857) and Vienna (1861). As foreign minister in 1870, he instructed the French ambassador to Prussia, Vincent Benedetti, to hold the ill-fated interview with King (later Emperor) William I that led to the publication of the Ems dispatchEms dispatch,
1870, communication between King William of Prussia (later German Emperor William I) and his premier, Otto von Bismarck. In June, 1870, the throne of Spain was offered to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, a relative of King William.
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, the flimsy pretext on which France declared war against Prussia (see Franco-Prussian WarFranco-Prussian War
or Franco-German War,
1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German military power and imperialism. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck (the Prussian chancellor) as part of his plan to create a unified German
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).
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