Here is an account of the entwined lives of Don Giovanni--the illegitimate son of Cosimo I, Grand Duke
of Tuscany--and Livia Vernazza, a runaway bride and daughter of a Genoese mattress maker.
Why do you think it is necessary to reconstruct the Palace of Lithuanian Grand Dukes
Reinforcing ties with the Habsburgs was essential to the Medici Grand Dukes
and the maintenance of their European position.
The only period in which female representatives of the house of Medici held the reins of power was during the joint regency of the Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria (1589-1631), widow of Grand Duke
Cosimo II de' Medici (1590-1621), and her mother-in-law, Grand Duchess Christine of Lorraine (1565-1636).
Enthusiastically admired by the Medici, the grand dukes
displayed in the octagonal Tribuna of the Uffizi examples of "inlaid brass" such as the beautiful covered box, incised and inlaid with silver and today in the Bargello in Florence.
The Medici grand dukes
were arguably the first political leaders in Europe to establish modern systems of urban planning and use cultural commissions to celebrate their accomplishments and secure their dynasty's future.
The relations between the Medici grand dukes
and an increasingly powerful nobility are explored in J.-C.
The exhibition includes such documents as letters by Lithuanian Grand Duke
Gediminas of 1323, the Act of Kreva of 1385, which created a dynastic union between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland, the Peace Treaty of Melno between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Teutonic Order of 1422, the Papal Bull of Pope Gregory XIII confirming the foundation of Vilnius University in 1579, a 1948 underground publication by Lithuanian anti-Soviet guerrillas, the act of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania declaring the restoration of Lithuania's independence on March 11, 1990.
In 1993 Warren Kirkendale published The Court Musicians in Florence during the Principate of the Medici (Olschki), a comprehensive compendium of all the known archival documentation on the musicians, as well as the artists and men of letters, regularly employed by the Medici Grand Dukes
from Cosimo I to Gian Gastone.
photo-shoot: Seventy kings, queens, grand dukes
, princes, counts and lesser nobles.