grand jury

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grand jury,

in law, body of persons selected to inquire into crimes committed within a certain jurisdiction. It usually comprises a greater number than the trial, or petit (also, petty) jury, having since early common lawcommon law,
system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that
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 days had between 12 and 23 members. In the United States, federal grand juries have between 16 and 23 jurors. The grand jury receives complaints and accusations in criminal cases, hears evidence adduced by the state, and approves an indictmentindictment
, in criminal law, formal written accusation naming specific persons and crimes. Persons suspected of crime may be rendered liable to trial by indictment, by presentment, or by information.
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 when satisfied that there is enough evidence against the accused to warrant a trial. It was not until the 17th cent. that the grand jury acquired its modern functions as a check on the discretion of prosecutors and a way of preventing unjustified and politically motivated prosecutions. Grand juries have investigative functions as well, and are sometimes impaneled to issue reports on, e.g., suspected official wrongdoing.

The rules governing grand jury proceedings are very different from those governing trials by (petit) jury. The public is not admitted to hearings, and witnesses can be compelled to testify. The procedure is inquisitorial rather than adversarial: the defense is not allowed to call witnesses, and the prosecutor is not obliged to present both sides of the case. Hearsay and other evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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 that might be excluded at a jury trial may be introduced.

The use of grand juries has declined in the 20th cent., in part because they were perceived as prone to either prosecutorial domination or abuse of their investigatory role. Britain abandoned them in the 1930s, and today fewer than half of U.S. states employ them. The information, a written statement issued by a prosecutor, has largely replaced the indictment. The Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, however, guarantees a grand jury inquiry to anyone accused in federal court of a capital "or otherwise infamous" (i.e., a felony) crime.

grand jury

Law (esp in the US and, now rarely, in Canada) a jury of between 12 and 23 persons summoned to inquire into accusations of crime and ascertain whether the evidence is adequate to found an indictment. Abolished in Britain in 1948
References in periodicals archive ?
What grand juries don't hear is any cross-examination of witnesses, since defense attorneys aren't allowed in the door.
Grand juries were used for various administrative matters in the different colonies as well as for the initiation of criminal prosecutions.
617, 631 (1998) (stating that in 1984 federal grand juries returned indictments in 99.
Leipold, supra note 4, at 269 (arguing that grand juries approve almost any prosecutorial action).
Indeed, since the colonies lacked an efficient constabulary, colonial grand juries exercised greater independence than their English counterparts.
We've all been reminded in the last few weeks that grand juries have a lot of power.
10) In addition, there were grand juries that refused to indict the Stamp Act rioters or to indict former Vice President Aaron Burr.
Federal grand juries consist of 23 people with 16 constituting a quorum.
html, an American Bar Association site, offers brief explanations of the structure of courts, the role of judges, judicial independence, and trial and grand juries.
More broadly, however, the Court refused to read any content into the Fifth Amendment right to have the grand jury indict, or to place any limits on the kind of evidence upon which grand juries may act.
THE FEDERAL government has transformed grand juries into "inquisitorial bulldozers that run roughshod over the constitutional rights of citizens," warns a new study from the Cato Institute.