Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

(äNtwän` pĕrənō` də gräNvĕl`), 1517–86, statesman in the service of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and of King Philip II of Spain; cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was born at Besançon (then an imperial city), the son of Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle, whom he succeeded as imperial councillor. The younger Granvelle negotiated the marriage of the Infante Philip (later Philip II) to Queen Mary I of England. After Philip's accession (1556) he became president of the council of state under Margaret of ParmaMargaret of Parma,
1522–86, Spanish regent of the Netherlands; illegitimate daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. She was married (1536) to Alessandro de' Medici (d. 1537) and (1538) to Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma.
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, regent of the Netherlands. He was, in effect, governor and incurred the hostility of all Dutch and Flemish patriots (Protestants and Catholics alike) by retaining Spanish troops and increasing religious persecution. William the SilentWilliam the Silent
or William of Orange
(William I, prince of Orange), 1533–84, Dutch statesman, principal founder of Dutch independence. Early Life
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 and the counts EgmontEgmont, Lamoral, count of
, 1522–68, Flemish general and statesman, member of one of the noblest families of the Netherlands. In the service of Philip II of Spain he helped defeat the French at Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558) and was governor of Brabant and
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 and HoornHoorn or Horn, Philip de Montmorency, count of
, 1518?–1568, Netherlands nobleman, member of the council of state during the regency of Margaret of Parma.
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 headed the opposition. In 1564, Granvelle was advised by Philip II to retire to Besançon. Granvelle subsequently served Philip as viceroy of Naples and adviser on Italian affairs. He was recalled as councillor to Philip in 1579 but lost influence after 1582.
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Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de

 

(also Granvela, Antoine Perrenot de). Born Aug. 20, 1517, in Besançon; died Sept. 21, 1586, in Madrid. Spanish statesman, cardinal (1561).

From 1559 to 1564, Granyelle was the closest adviser of the Spanish regent in the Netherlands, Margaret of Parma. He carried out a policy directed at the enslavement and plundering of the Netherlands. Granvelle’s policy provoked indignation in the country and he was recalled to Spain. He was viceroy of Naples from 1571 to 1575, and after 1575 he was an especially trusted adviser of the Spanish king Philip II.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.