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A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The use of morphology by children has also been studied to some extent in transparent languages, such as Spanish, Italian and Finnish (Burani, Marcolini, & Stella, 2002; Cuetos & Suarez-Coalla, 2009; Muller & Brady, 2001), since the development of morphological representations would allow a smooth and precise reading, especially with unknown words, avoiding the grapheme segmentation.
Three rudiments, its graphemes, represent alphabet members.
The target behaviors (reading stimuli as phonemes and graphemes) were administered in random order on each day of the intervention phase (on each day of the intervention phase, there was a randomly assigned equal number of phoneme cards and an equal number of grapheme cards).
It is to be noted that another verb with an analogous structure, OE maersian 'make famous', from maere 'famous', also has a voiced fricative, while in OE cursian 'curse', the grapheme <s> must have corresponded to a voiceless fricative.
The letters that comprise these graphemes virtually never appear together as separate graphemes (i.e.
* Omissions--stop placing graphemes which belong to the word (ex: galinha--galina).
Une deuxieme etape ciblait 16 phonemes constitues d'un ou deux graphemes et 48 mots.
A grapheme doesn't represent a phoneme until it is in a word or even a sentence.
Transcription was significantly impaired with the tendency for omission, substitution and transposition of graphemes.
The phoneme /s/ can be represented by nine different graphemes in the Portuguese language.
With two sets of SATs, not to mention personal, social and health education, and graphemes to grapple with, will modern under-11s look back and say that their schooldays were the happiest of their lives?
8: The reading of the final sequence of graphemes as y'rqn' and as a Libyco-Berber name IRKNH (RIL 291) "Iarkano" is a meritorious proposal (cf.