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A pictorial representation of a semanteme, such as X-reference for cross-reference.



the smallest distinctive unit of written speech, corresponding to the phoneme in oral speech—a, b, and so on. The system of graphemes of a particular writing system makes up the system’s alphabet.

The grapheme must be distinguished from the letter, which corresponds to a sound of speech (A, a, a, and so on), and from a graphic combination (that is, a collection of letters), which is regularly used in the particular writing system to designate a certain phoneme (for example, ch represents the phonemes [#x222B;], [x], and [t∫] in the French, German, and English writing systems, respectively). The term “grapheme” was introduced in 1912 by I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay.


Baudouin de Courtenay, I. A. Ob otnoshenii russkogo pis’ma krusskomu iazyku. St. Petersburg, 1912.
Volotskaia, Z. M., T. N. Moloshnaia, and T. M. Nikolaeva. Opyt opisaniia russkogo iazyka v ego pis’mennoi forme. Moscow, 1964.



(1) See also graphene.

(2) A displayed or printed letter of the alphabet with all of its accent marks in place. See glyph.
References in periodicals archive ?
Deaf--sound: change, when writing, graphemes which represent pairs of phonemes which differ only about the presence or not of vocal folds vibration ex: p-b; c-g; t-d.
Complex Long Vowel Vowel Consonant Graphemes Graphemes Patterns 12.
Reading instruction which simply focuses on phoneme to grapheme correspondence does not support the more sophisticated levels of word analysis used by advanced readers.
Hence, phonological processes would be used more in reading orthographically shallow pointed Arabic because the mapping of graphemes to phonemes is consistent unlike unpointed Arabic which is considered a deep orthography.
One finds in Old Javanese studies no less than three renderings for the velar nasal grapheme (i.
However, the attempts to explain the abnormally frequent use of double consonant graphemes in The Ormulum made in previous studies clearly show that certain methodological problems also perpetuate in more recent publications.
L'eleve devait prononcer uniquement le grapheme represente par la ou les lettres soulignees, de la facon dont il est prononce dans le mot.
Phonetisation model uses lexical analysis to map graphemes (alphabetic letters, numerical digits, punctuation marks) to phonemes.
The rise of semiotics brought attention to another notable version of visual language, or more precisely, visual non-language: asemic (non-meaningful) writing, in which glyphs resembling graphemes suggest they might have meaning when they don't.
A computer used PowerPoint[R] to present bouba or kiki as auditory stimuli through speakers while simultaneously presenting the graphemes of the words on the screen in Arial font set at a 2 s interval.
To further scrutinise, they hypothesise that in-depth PA at the phoneme level may not exist without knowledge of graphemes (a written letter or a group of letters that represent a phoneme).